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Alport syndrome, X-linked recessive

Alport syndrome (AS) is characterized by renal, cochlear, and ocular involvement. In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with X-linked (XL) AS, and in all males and females with autosomal recessive (AR) AS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with autosomal dominant (AD) AS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is also relatively late in onset and ocular involvement is rare. Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) is characterized by persistent microscopic hematuria often first observed in childhood; progressive renal disease is relatively unusual and extrarenal abnormalities are rare. [from GeneReviews]

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Alport syndrome-like hereditary nephritis

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