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Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome(SGS)

MedGen UID:
231160
Concept ID:
C1321551
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Craniosynostosis with arachnodactyly and abdominal hernias; Marfanoid craniosynostosis syndrome; Marfanoid disorder with craniosynostosis type 1; SGS; Shprintzen-Goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome; Shprintzen-Goldberg marfanoid syndrome
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
Autosomal dominant inheritance refers to genetic conditions that occur when a mutation is present in one copy of a given gene (i.e., the person is heterozygous).
Sporadic
MedGen UID:
342827
Concept ID:
C1853237
Finding
Sources: HPO, OMIM
Cases of the disease in question occur without a previous family history, i.e., as isolated cases without being transmitted from a parent and without other siblings being affected.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
Sporadic (HPO, OMIM)
SNOMED CT: Shprintzen Goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome (719069008); Marfanoid craniosynostosis syndrome (719069008); Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (719069008)
 
Gene (location): SKI (1p36.33-36.32)
OMIM®: 182212

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by: craniosynostosis of the coronal, sagittal, or lambdoid sutures; dolichocephaly; distinctive craniofacial features; skeletal changes (dolichostenomelia, arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, pes planus, pectus excavatum or carinatum, scoliosis, joint hypermobility or contractures and C1/C2 spine malformation); neurologic abnormalities; intellectual disability; and brain anomalies (hydrocephalus, dilatation of the lateral ventricles, and Chiari 1 malformation). Cardiovascular anomalies may include mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation/incompetence, aortic regurgitation, and aortic root dilatation. Minimal subcutaneous fat, abdominal wall defects, myopia, and cryptorchidism in males are also characteristic findings. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Marie T Greally   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome is a disorder comprising craniosynostosis, a marfanoid habitus, and skeletal, neurologic, cardiovascular, and connective tissue anomalies. There appears to be a characteristic facies involving hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, high-arched palate, micrognathia, and low-set posteriorly rotated ears. Other commonly reported manifestations include hypotonia, developmental delay, and inguinal or umbilical hernia; the most common skeletal manifestations are arachnodactyly, pectus deformity, camptodactyly, scoliosis, and joint hypermobility (summary by Robinson et al., 2005). There is considerable phenotypic overlap between SGS and Marfan syndrome (MFS; 154700) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS; see 609192): SGS includes virtually all of the craniofacial, skeletal, skin, and cardiovascular manifestations of MFS and LDS, with the additional findings of mental retardation and severe skeletal muscle hypotonia (summary by Doyle et al., 2012).  http://www.omim.org/entry/182212
From GHR
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome is a disorder that affects many parts of the body. Affected individuals have a combination of distinctive facial features and skeletal and neurological abnormalities.A common feature in people with Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome is craniosynostosis, which is the premature fusion of certain skull bones. This early fusion prevents the skull from growing normally. Affected individuals can also have distinctive facial features, including a long, narrow head; widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism); protruding eyes (exophthalmos); outside corners of the eyes that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures); a high, narrow palate; a small lower jaw (micrognathia); and low-set ears that are rotated backward.People with Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome are often said to have a marfanoid habitus, because their bodies resemble those of people with a genetic condition called Marfan syndrome. For example, they may have long, slender fingers (arachnodactyly), unusually long limbs, a sunken chest (pectus excavatum) or protruding chest (pectus carinatum), and an abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis). People with Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome can have other skeletal abnormalities, such as one or more fingers that are permanently bent (camptodactyly) and an unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility).People with Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome often have delayed development and mild to moderate intellectual disability.Other common features of Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome include heart or brain abnormalities, weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy, and a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or lower abdomen (inguinal hernia).Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome has signs and symptoms similar to those of Marfan syndrome and another genetic condition called Loeys-Dietz syndrome. However, intellectual disability is more likely to occur in Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome than in the other two conditions. In addition, heart abnormalities are more common and usually more severe in Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/shprintzen-goldberg-syndrome

Clinical features

Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects nearby clearly, while objects in the distance appear blurry.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
Strabismus (also known as squint) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other.
Shallow orbits
MedGen UID:
351328
Concept ID:
C1865244
Finding
Reduced depth of the orbits associated with prominent-appearing ocular globes.
Cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormal bone development that is characterized by extra long and slender hands and fingers, such that the clenched thumb extends beyond the ulnar side of the hand. Arachnodactyly can include feet and toes. Arachnodactyly has been associated with several gene mutations and syndromes.
Talipes equinovarus
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Joint contracture of the hand
MedGen UID:
56382
Concept ID:
C0158113
Finding
Contractures of one ore more joints of the hands meaning chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in non-bony tissue.
Toeing-in
MedGen UID:
534039
Concept ID:
C0231791
Finding
The metatarsals are deviated medially (tibially), that is, the bones in the front half of the foot bend or turn in toward the body.
Dislocated radial head
MedGen UID:
488814
Concept ID:
C0265563
Congenital Abnormality
A dislocation of the head of the radius from its socket in the elbow joint.
Genu recurvatum
MedGen UID:
107486
Concept ID:
C0546964
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal alignment of the knee backwards that is due to a deformity in the knee joint.
Genu valgum
MedGen UID:
154364
Concept ID:
C0576093
Anatomical Abnormality
The legs angle inward, such that the knees are close together and the ankles far apart.
Metaphyseal widening
MedGen UID:
341364
Concept ID:
C1849039
Finding
A radiologic finding characterized by an increased width of the metaphyseal regions. It is seen in rickets.
Orthostatic intolerance
MedGen UID:
7671
Concept ID:
C0026267
Disease or Syndrome
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) occurs when one of your heart's valves doesn't work properly. The flaps of the valve are floppy and don't close tightly. Most people who have the condition are born with it. It also tends to run in families. Most of the time, MVP doesn't cause any problems. Rarely, blood can leak the wrong way through the floppy valve. This can cause. -Palpitations (feelings that your heart is skipping a beat, fluttering, or beating too hard or too fast). -Shortness of breath. -Cough. -Fatigue, dizziness, or anxiety. -Migraine headaches. -Chest discomfort. Most people who have mitral valve prolapse (MVP) don't need treatment because they don't have symptoms and complications. If you need treatment for MVP, medicines can help relieve symptoms or prevent complications. Very few people will need surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve. MVP puts you at risk for infective endocarditis, a kind of heart infection. To prevent it, doctors used to prescribe antibiotics before dental work or certain surgeries. Now, only people at high risk of endocarditis need the antibiotics. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Aortic dilatation
MedGen UID:
78118
Concept ID:
C0265004
Pathologic Function
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
MedGen UID:
6553
Concept ID:
C0017168
Disease or Syndrome
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is characterized by the retrograde movement of stomach contents into the esophagus. In its most severe form, GER results in extensive tissue damage caused by acid reflux. In adolescents and adults, and even infrequently in children, chronic GER is associated with the risk of developing Barrett metaplasia (614266), a premalignant lesion of the esophageal mucosa (Hu et al., 2000). In turn, Barrett metaplasia is correlated with the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (see 614266), estimated as the fifth most prevalent neoplasia in the Western world (Lagergren et al., 1999).
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Disease or Syndrome
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Abdominal wall muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
867169
Concept ID:
C4021527
Finding
Decreased strength of the abdominal musculature.
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.
Abnormality of the pinna
MedGen UID:
167800
Concept ID:
C0857379
Finding
An abnormality of the pinna, which is also referred to as the auricle or external ear.
Low-set, posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
387834
Concept ID:
C1857486
Finding
Ears that are low-set (HP:0000369) and posteriorly rotated (HP:0000358).
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hydrocephalus is characterized by onset in utero of enlarged ventricles due to a disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation. Affected individuals may have neurologic impairment (summary by Drielsma et al., 2012). Hydrocephalus can also be caused by Arnold-Chiari malformation, atresia of foramen of Magendie, stenosis of aqueduct of Sylvius (307000), toxoplasmosis, hydranencephaly, etc. Furthermore, it develops in infancy or childhood in achondroplasia (100800) and in Hurler disease (607014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Hydrocephalus See also autosomal recessive HYC2 (615219), caused by mutation in the MPDZ gene (603785) on chromosome 9p. An X-linked form (307000) is caused by mutation in the L1CAM gene on (308840) on chromosome Xq28.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
MedGen UID:
101045
Concept ID:
C0520679
Disease or Syndrome
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common, chronic, complex disease associated with serious cardiovascular and neuropsychologic sequelae and with substantial social and economic costs (Palmer et al., 2003).
Chiari malformation type I
MedGen UID:
196689
Concept ID:
C0750929
Congenital Abnormality
Chiari malformation type I (CM1) is the protrusion of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum, defined radiologically as tonsillar descent of 5 mm or more. CM1 is associated with syringomyelia (see 186700) in up to 80% of cases. Although many individuals with CM1 are asymptomatic, the malformation can cause headaches, ocular disturbances, otoneurologic disturbances, lower cranial nerve signs, cerebellar ataxia, or spasticity. Onset of symptoms is usually in the third decade of life (Speer et al., 2003). Since many cases of CM1 are asymptomatic, prevalence estimates may not be accurate. However, a retrospective investigation of brain MRIs reported the prevalence of CM1 to be 1 in 1,280 individuals (Meadows et al., 2000).
Cognitive delay
MedGen UID:
351243
Concept ID:
C1864897
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
MedGen UID:
101045
Concept ID:
C0520679
Disease or Syndrome
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common, chronic, complex disease associated with serious cardiovascular and neuropsychologic sequelae and with substantial social and economic costs (Palmer et al., 2003).
Cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Muscular hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Muscular hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. Hypotonia is characterized by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
Joint contracture of the hand
MedGen UID:
56382
Concept ID:
C0158113
Finding
Contractures of one ore more joints of the hands meaning chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in non-bony tissue.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Abdominal wall muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
867169
Concept ID:
C4021527
Finding
Decreased strength of the abdominal musculature.
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormal bone development that is characterized by extra long and slender hands and fingers, such that the clenched thumb extends beyond the ulnar side of the hand. Arachnodactyly can include feet and toes. Arachnodactyly has been associated with several gene mutations and syndromes.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Osteopenia
MedGen UID:
18222
Concept ID:
C0029453
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopenia refers to a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) below normal peak BMD but not low enough to be classified as osteoporosis. According to the WHO, osteopenia is characterized by a value of BMD more than 1 standard deviation below the young adult mean, but less than 2 standard deviations below this value.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
21278
Concept ID:
C0037932
Finding
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Joint laxity
MedGen UID:
39439
Concept ID:
C0086437
Sign or Symptom
Lack of stability of a joint.
Joint contracture of the hand
MedGen UID:
56382
Concept ID:
C0158113
Finding
Contractures of one ore more joints of the hands meaning chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in non-bony tissue.
Pectus carinatum
MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Finding
A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Toeing-in
MedGen UID:
534039
Concept ID:
C0231791
Finding
The metatarsals are deviated medially (tibially), that is, the bones in the front half of the foot bend or turn in toward the body.
Abnormality of the skull
MedGen UID:
488801
Concept ID:
C0235942
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the skull, the bony framework of the head which is comprised of eight cranial and fourteen facial bones.
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
Dislocated radial head
MedGen UID:
488814
Concept ID:
C0265563
Congenital Abnormality
A dislocation of the head of the radius from its socket in the elbow joint.
Supernumerary ribs
MedGen UID:
83380
Concept ID:
C0345397
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of more than 12 rib pairs.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Lateral clavicle hook
MedGen UID:
98426
Concept ID:
C0426805
Finding
An excessive upward convexity of the lateral clavicle.
Thin ribs
MedGen UID:
98095
Concept ID:
C0426818
Finding
Ribs with a reduced diameter.
Genu recurvatum
MedGen UID:
107486
Concept ID:
C0546964
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal alignment of the knee backwards that is due to a deformity in the knee joint.
Genu valgum
MedGen UID:
154364
Concept ID:
C0576093
Anatomical Abnormality
The legs angle inward, such that the knees are close together and the ankles far apart.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Metaphyseal widening
MedGen UID:
341364
Concept ID:
C1849039
Finding
A radiologic finding characterized by an increased width of the metaphyseal regions. It is seen in rickets.
Shallow orbits
MedGen UID:
351328
Concept ID:
C1865244
Finding
Reduced depth of the orbits associated with prominent-appearing ocular globes.
Wide anterior fontanel
MedGen UID:
400926
Concept ID:
C1866134
Finding
Enlargement of the anterior fontanelle with respect to age-dependent norms.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest (\
C1-C2 vertebral abnormality
MedGen UID:
870237
Concept ID:
C4024675
Anatomical Abnormality
Any abnormality of the atlas and the axis.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Dental malocclusion
MedGen UID:
9869
Concept ID:
C0024636
Disease or Syndrome
Dental malocclusion refers to an abnormality of the occlusion, or alignment, of the teeth and the way the upper and lower teeth fit together, resulting in overcrowding of teeth or in abnormal bite patterns.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Abnormality of the skull
MedGen UID:
488801
Concept ID:
C0235942
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the skull, the bony framework of the head which is comprised of eight cranial and fourteen facial bones.
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Telecanthus
MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Narrow palate
MedGen UID:
278045
Concept ID:
C1398312
Finding
Width of the palate more than 2 SD below the mean (objective) or apparently decreased palatal width (subjective).
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Shallow orbits
MedGen UID:
351328
Concept ID:
C1865244
Finding
Reduced depth of the orbits associated with prominent-appearing ocular globes.
Wide anterior fontanel
MedGen UID:
400926
Concept ID:
C1866134
Finding
Enlargement of the anterior fontanelle with respect to age-dependent norms.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Disease or Syndrome
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Joint contracture of the hand
MedGen UID:
56382
Concept ID:
C0158113
Finding
Contractures of one ore more joints of the hands meaning chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in non-bony tissue.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Minimal subcutaneous fat
MedGen UID:
395263
Concept ID:
C1859442
Finding
Hyperextensible skin
MedGen UID:
66023
Concept ID:
C0241074
Finding
A condition in which the skin can be stretched beyond normal, and then returns to its initial position.
Minimal subcutaneous fat
MedGen UID:
395263
Concept ID:
C1859442
Finding

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVShprintzen-Goldberg syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Cook JR, Carta L, Galatioto J, Ramirez F
Clin Genet 2015;87(1):11-20. Epub 2014 Jul 10 doi: 10.1111/cge.12436. PMID: 24867163
Pauliks LB, Chan KC, Lorts A, Elias ER, Cayre RO, Valdes-Cruz LM
J Ultrasound Med 2005 May;24(5):703-6. PMID: 15840802
Topouzelis N, Markovitsi E, Antoniades K
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2003 Jul;40(4):433-6. doi: 10.1597/1545-1569(2003)040<0433:SSCR>2.0.CO;2. PMID: 12846610
Greally MT, Carey JC, Milewicz DM, Hudgins L, Goldberg RB, Shprintzen RJ, Cousineau AJ, Smith WL Jr, Judisch GF, Hanson JW
Am J Med Genet 1998 Mar 19;76(3):202-12. PMID: 9508238
Sood S, Eldadah ZA, Krause WL, McIntosh I, Dietz HC
Nat Genet 1996 Feb;12(2):209-11. doi: 10.1038/ng0296-209. PMID: 8563763

Diagnosis

Al Kaissi A, Marrakchi Z, Nassib NM, Hofstaetter J, Grill F, Ganger R, Kircher SG
Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Mar;96(12):e6199. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000006199. PMID: 28328806Free PMC Article
Schepers D, Doyle AJ, Oswald G, Sparks E, Myers L, Willems PJ, Mansour S, Simpson MA, Frysira H, Maat-Kievit A, Van Minkelen R, Hoogeboom JM, Mortier GR, Titheradge H, Brueton L, Starr L, Stark Z, Ockeloen C, Lourenco CM, Blair E, Hobson E, Hurst J, Maystadt I, Destrée A, Girisha KM, Miller M, Dietz HC, Loeys B, Van Laer L
Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Feb;23(2):224-8. Epub 2014 Apr 16 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.61. PMID: 24736733Free PMC Article
Elmistekawy E, Hudson CC, Williams A, Mesana T
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2014 Sep;22(7):842-5. Epub 2013 Oct 9 doi: 10.1177/0218492313485070. PMID: 24887819
Au PY, Racher HE, Graham JM Jr, Kramer N, Lowry RB, Parboosingh JS, Innes AM; FORGE Canada Consortium.
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Mar;164A(3):676-84. Epub 2013 Dec 19 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36340. PMID: 24357594
Levy B, Tegay D, Papenhausen P, Tepperberg J, Nahum O, Tsuchida T, Pletcher BA, Ala-Kokko L, Baker S, Frederick B, Hirschhorn K, Warburton P, Shanske A
Genet Med 2012 Sep;14(9):811-8. Epub 2012 May 31 doi: 10.1038/gim.2012.54. PMID: 22653535

Therapy

Cannaerts E, van de Beek G, Verstraeten A, Van Laer L, Loeys B
Eur J Med Genet 2015 Dec;58(12):695-703. Epub 2015 Oct 24 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2015.10.010. PMID: 26598797
Elmistekawy E, Hudson CC, Williams A, Mesana T
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2014 Sep;22(7):842-5. Epub 2013 Oct 9 doi: 10.1177/0218492313485070. PMID: 24887819

Prognosis

Elmistekawy E, Hudson CC, Williams A, Mesana T
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2014 Sep;22(7):842-5. Epub 2013 Oct 9 doi: 10.1177/0218492313485070. PMID: 24887819
Van Lierde KM, Mortier G, Loeys B, Baudonck N, De Ley S, Marks LA, Van Borsel J
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2007 May;71(5):721-8. Epub 2007 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2007.01.009. PMID: 17303258
Pauliks LB, Chan KC, Lorts A, Elias ER, Cayre RO, Valdes-Cruz LM
J Ultrasound Med 2005 May;24(5):703-6. PMID: 15840802
Stoll C
Clin Dysmorphol 2002 Jan;11(1):1-7. PMID: 11822698

Clinical prediction guides

Schepers D, Doyle AJ, Oswald G, Sparks E, Myers L, Willems PJ, Mansour S, Simpson MA, Frysira H, Maat-Kievit A, Van Minkelen R, Hoogeboom JM, Mortier GR, Titheradge H, Brueton L, Starr L, Stark Z, Ockeloen C, Lourenco CM, Blair E, Hobson E, Hurst J, Maystadt I, Destrée A, Girisha KM, Miller M, Dietz HC, Loeys B, Van Laer L
Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Feb;23(2):224-8. Epub 2014 Apr 16 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.61. PMID: 24736733Free PMC Article
Zhu X, Zhang Y, Wang J, Yang JF, Yang YF, Tan ZP
Gene 2013 Oct 10;528(2):352-5. Epub 2013 Jul 25 doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.07.024. PMID: 23892090
Akutsu K, Morisaki H, Takeshita S, Sakamoto S, Tamori Y, Yoshimuta T, Yokoyama N, Nonogi H, Ogino H, Morisaki T
Circ J 2007 Aug;71(8):1305-9. PMID: 17652900
Fukunaga S, Akashi H, Tayama K, Kawano H, Kosuga K, Aoyagi S
J Heart Valve Dis 1997 Mar;6(2):181-3. PMID: 9130129
Sood S, Eldadah ZA, Krause WL, McIntosh I, Dietz HC
Nat Genet 1996 Feb;12(2):209-11. doi: 10.1038/ng0296-209. PMID: 8563763

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