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Items: 5

1.

SEIZURES, SCOLIOSIS, AND MACROCEPHALY SYNDROME (1 family)

MedGen UID:
904653
Concept ID:
C4225519
Finding
2.

Craniosynostosis 5, susceptibility to

Premature fusion of the various sutures in the human neurocranium (skull vault and base) is defined as craniosynostosis (CRS). Clinical consequences include abnormal head shape and increased intracranial pressure, which may result in neurologic symptoms, developmental delay, and hearing or vision problems. Approximately 80% of cases are classified as nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and present as isolated suture fusion with no other associated anomalies. Sagittal suture fusion is the most common form of isolated craniosynostosis, accounting for 40 to 58% of all isolated cases (summary by Yagnik et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816149
Concept ID:
C3809819
Finding
3.

Frontonasal dysplasia 2

Frontonasal dysplasia is a condition that results from abnormal development of the head and face before birth. People with frontonasal dysplasia have at least two of the following features: widely spaced eyes (ocular hypertelorism); a broad nose; a slit (cleft) in one or both sides of the nose; no nasal tip; a central cleft involving the nose, upper lip, or roof of the mouth (palate); incomplete formation of the front of the skull with skin covering the head where bone should be (anterior cranium bifidum occultum); or a widow's peak hairline.Other features of frontonasal dysplasia can include additional facial malformations, absence or malformation of the tissue that connects the left and right halves of the brain (the corpus callosum), and intellectual disability.There are at least three types of frontonasal dysplasia that are distinguished by their genetic causes and their signs and symptoms. In addition to the features previously described, each type of frontonasal dysplasia is associated with other distinctive features. Individuals with frontonasal dysplasia type 1 typically have abnormalities of the nose, a long area between the nose and upper lip (philtrum), and droopy upper eyelids (ptosis). Individuals with frontonasal dysplasia type 2 can have hair loss (alopecia) and an enlarged opening in the two bones that make up much of the top and sides of the skull (enlarged parietal foramina). Males with this form of the condition often have genital abnormalities. Features of frontonasal dysplasia type 3 include eyes that are missing (anophthalmia) or very small (microphthalmia) and low-set ears that are rotated backward. Frontonasal dysplasia type 3 is typically associated with the most severe facial abnormalities, but the severity of the condition varies widely, even among individuals with the same type.Life expectancy of affected individuals depends on the severity of the malformations and whether or not surgical intervention can improve associated health problems, such as breathing and feeding problems caused by the facial clefts.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
462053
Concept ID:
C3150703
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Multiple exostoses type 2

The disorder hereditary multiple osteochondromas (HMO), previously called hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), is characterized by growths of multiple osteochondromas (benign cartilage-capped bone tumors that grow outward from the metaphyses of long bones). Osteochondromas can be associated with a reduction in skeletal growth, bony deformity, restricted joint motion, shortened stature, premature osteoarthrosis, and compression of peripheral nerves. The median age of diagnosis is three years; nearly all affected individuals are diagnosed by age 12 years. The risk for malignant degeneration to osteochondrosarcoma increases with age, although the lifetime risk of malignant degeneration is low (~1%). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
377018
Concept ID:
C1851413
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Parietal foramina 2

Enlarged parietal foramina are characteristic symmetric, paired radiolucencies of the parietal bones, located close to the intersection of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures, caused by deficient ossification around the parietal notch, which is normally obliterated by the fifth month of fetal development. Enlarged parietal foramina are usually asymptomatic. Meningeal, cortical, and vascular malformations of the posterior fossa occasionally accompany the bone defects and may predispose to epilepsy. In a minority of individuals, headaches, vomiting, or intense local pain are sometimes associated with the defects, especially on application of mild pressure to the unprotected cerebral cortex. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
355358
Concept ID:
C1865044
Disease or Syndrome
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