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Stromme syndrome(STROMS)

MedGen UID:
340938
Concept ID:
C1855705
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: APPLE PEEL SYNDROME WITH MICROCEPHALY AND OCULAR ANOMALIES; Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 31; STROMS
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal recessive inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): CENPF (1q41)
OMIM®: 243605; 616369

Definition

Stromme syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder affecting multiple systems with features of a ciliopathy. Affected individuals typically have some type of intestinal atresia, variable ocular abnormalities, microcephaly, and sometimes involvement of other systems, including renal and cardiac. In some cases, the condition is lethal in early life, whereas other patients show normal survival with or without mild cognitive impairment (summary by Filges et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Duodenal atresia
MedGen UID:
75602
Concept ID:
C0266174
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental defect resulting in complete obliteration of the duodenal lumen, that is, an abnormal closure of the duodenum.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hydrocephalus is characterized by onset in utero of enlarged ventricles due to a disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation. Affected individuals may have neurologic impairment (summary by Drielsma et al., 2012). Hydrocephalus can also be caused by Arnold-Chiari malformation, atresia of foramen of Magendie, stenosis of aqueduct of Sylvius (307000), toxoplasmosis, hydranencephaly, etc. Furthermore, it develops in infancy or childhood in achondroplasia (100800) and in Hurler disease (607014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Hydrocephalus See also autosomal recessive HYC2 (615219), caused by mutation in the MPDZ gene (603785) on chromosome 9p. An X-linked form (307000) is caused by mutation in the L1CAM gene on (308840) on chromosome Xq28.
Corpus callosum agenesis
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Congenital cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the cerebellum.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
3467
Concept ID:
C0008780
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is associated with situs abnormalities, abnormal sperm motility, and abnormal ciliary structure and function that result in retention of mucus and bacteria in the respiratory tract leading to chronic otosinopulmonary disease. More than 75% of full-term neonates with PCD have ‘neonatal respiratory distress’ requiring supplemental oxygen for days to weeks. Chronic airway infection, apparent in early childhood, results in bronchiectasis that is almost uniformly present in adulthood. Nasal congestion and sinus infections, apparent in early childhood, persist through adulthood. Chronic/recurrent ear infection, apparent in most young children, can be associated with transient or later irreversible hearing loss. Situs inversus totalis (mirror-image reversal of all visceral organs with no apparent physiologic consequences) is present in 40%-50% of individuals with PCD; heterotaxy (discordance of right and left patterns of ordinarily asymmetric structures that can be associated with significant malformations) is present in approximately 12%. Virtually all males with PCD are infertile as a result of abnormal sperm motility.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Short columella
MedGen UID:
341783
Concept ID:
C1857479
Finding
Reduced distance from the anterior border of the naris to the subnasale.
Cleft secondary palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Filges I, Bruder E, Brandal K, Meier S, Undlien DE, Waage TR, Hoesli I, Schubach M, de Beer T, Sheng Y, Hoeller S, Schulzke S, Røsby O, Miny P, Tercanli S, Oppedal T, Meyer P, Selmer KK, Strømme P
Hum Mutat 2016 Apr;37(4):359-63. Epub 2016 Feb 9 doi: 10.1002/humu.22960. PMID: 26820108

Diagnosis

Filges I, Bruder E, Brandal K, Meier S, Undlien DE, Waage TR, Hoesli I, Schubach M, de Beer T, Sheng Y, Hoeller S, Schulzke S, Røsby O, Miny P, Tercanli S, Oppedal T, Meyer P, Selmer KK, Strømme P
Hum Mutat 2016 Apr;37(4):359-63. Epub 2016 Feb 9 doi: 10.1002/humu.22960. PMID: 26820108
Castori M, Laino L, Briganti V, Pedace L, Zampini A, Marconi M, Grammatico B, Buffone E, Grammatico P
Eur J Med Genet 2010 May-Jun;53(3):149-52. Epub 2010 Feb 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2010.02.005. PMID: 20219704

Prognosis

Filges I, Bruder E, Brandal K, Meier S, Undlien DE, Waage TR, Hoesli I, Schubach M, de Beer T, Sheng Y, Hoeller S, Schulzke S, Røsby O, Miny P, Tercanli S, Oppedal T, Meyer P, Selmer KK, Strømme P
Hum Mutat 2016 Apr;37(4):359-63. Epub 2016 Feb 9 doi: 10.1002/humu.22960. PMID: 26820108
Castori M, Laino L, Briganti V, Pedace L, Zampini A, Marconi M, Grammatico B, Buffone E, Grammatico P
Eur J Med Genet 2010 May-Jun;53(3):149-52. Epub 2010 Feb 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2010.02.005. PMID: 20219704

Clinical prediction guides

Castori M, Laino L, Briganti V, Pedace L, Zampini A, Marconi M, Grammatico B, Buffone E, Grammatico P
Eur J Med Genet 2010 May-Jun;53(3):149-52. Epub 2010 Feb 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2010.02.005. PMID: 20219704

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