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Items: 15

1.

NADH-DEHYDROGENASE SUBUNIT 1, MITOCHONDRIAL, MUTATION IN

MedGen UID:
866062
Concept ID:
C4017625
Finding
2.

PARKINSON DISEASE 6, MODIFIER OF

MedGen UID:
865035
Concept ID:
C4016598
Finding
3.

Deafness, nonsyndromic sensorineural, mitochondrial

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been found to be associated with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Matrilineal relatives within and among families carrying certain pathogenic mitochondrial mutations exhibit a wide range of penetrance, severity, and age of onset of hearing loss, indicating that the mitochondrial mutations by themselves are not sufficient to produce a deafness phenotype. Modifier factors, such as nuclear and mitochondrial genes, or environmental factors, such as exposure to aminoglycosides, appear to modulate the phenotypic manifestations (summary by Tang et al., 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
463247
Concept ID:
C3151897
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Mitochondrial complex I deficiency

Isolated complex I deficiency is the most common enzymatic defect of the oxidative phosphorylation disorders (McFarland et al., 2004; Kirby et al., 2004). It causes a wide range of clinical disorders, ranging from lethal neonatal disease to adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. Phenotypes include macrocephaly with progressive leukodystrophy, nonspecific encephalopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myopathy, liver disease, Leigh syndrome (256000), Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (535000), and some forms of Parkinson disease (see 556500) (Loeffen et al., 2000; Pitkanen et al., 1996; Robinson, 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Complex I Deficiency Mitochondrial complex I deficiency shows extreme genetic heterogeneity and can be caused by mutation in nuclear-encoded genes or in mitochondrial-encoded genes. There are no obvious genotype-phenotype correlations, and inference of the underlying basis from the clinical or biochemical presentation is difficult, if not impossible (summary by Haack et al., 2012). However, the majority of cases are caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes (Loeffen et al., 2000; Triepels et al., 2001). Complex I deficiency with autosomal recessive inheritance results from mutation in nuclear-encoded subunit genes, including NDUFV1 (161015), NDUFV2 (600532), NDUFS1 (157655), NDUFS2 (602985), NDUFS3 (603846), NDUFS4 (602694), NDUFS6 (603848), NDUFS7 (601825), NDUFS8 (602141), NDUFA2 (602137), NDUFA11 (612638), NDUFAF3 (612911), NDUFA10 (603835), NDUFB3 (603839), NDUFB9 (601445), and the complex I assembly genes B17.2L (609653), HRPAP20 (611776), C20ORF7 (612360), NUBPL (613621), NDUFAF1 (606934), and TMEM126B (615533). The disorder can also be caused by mutation in other nuclear-encoded genes, including FOXRED1 (613622), ACAD9 (611103; see 611126), and MTFMT (611766; see 256000). X-linked inheritance is observed with mutations in the NDUFA1 (300078) and NDUFB11 (300403) genes. Complex I deficiency with mitochondrial inheritance has been associated with mutation in 6 mitochondrial-encoded components of complex I: MTND1 (516000), MTND2 (516001), MTND3 (516002), MTND4 (516003), MTND5 (516005), MTND6 (516006). Most of these patients have a phenotype of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON; 535000) or Leigh syndrome (256000). Features of complex I deficiency may also be caused by mutation in other mitochondrial genes, including MTTS2 (590085). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
374101
Concept ID:
C1838979
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy with dystonia

MedGen UID:
333240
Concept ID:
C1839040
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Leigh syndrome due to mitochondrial complex I deficiency

MedGen UID:
333220
Concept ID:
C1838951
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Striatal necrosis, bilateral, with dystonia

MedGen UID:
325555
Concept ID:
C1838954
Finding; Gene or Genome
8.

Colorectal Cancer

The colon and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of the large intestine. It is common in both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more likely to get it if you have colorectal polyps, a family history of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, eat a diet high in fat, or smoke. Symptoms of colorectal cancer include. -Diarrhea or constipation. -A feeling that your bowel does not empty completely. -Blood (either bright red or very dark) in your stool. -Stools that are narrower than usual. -Frequent gas pains or cramps, or feeling full or bloated. -Weight loss with no known reason. -Fatigue. -Nausea or vomiting. Because you may not have symptoms at first, it's important to have screening tests. Everyone over 50 should get screened. Tests include colonoscopy and tests for blood in the stool. Treatments for colorectal cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination. Surgery can usually cure it when it is found early. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
287122
Concept ID:
C1527249
Neoplastic Process
9.

Dystonia, adult-onset

MedGen UID:
199835
Concept ID:
C0752197
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Leber optic atrophy

Mitochondrial diseases are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that arise as a result of dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They can be caused by mutation of genes encoded by either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). While some mitochondrial disorders only affect a single organ (e.g., the eye in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy [LHON]), many involve multiple organ systems and often present with prominent neurologic and myopathic features. Mitochondrial disorders may present at any age. Many individuals with a mutation of mtDNA display a cluster of clinical features that fall into a discrete clinical syndrome, such as the Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), neurogenic weakness with ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), or Leigh syndrome (LS). However, considerable clinical variability exists and many individuals do not fit neatly into one particular category, which is well-illustrated by the overlapping spectrum of disease phenotypes (including mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) resulting from mutation of the nuclear gene POLG, which has emerged as a major cause of mitochondrial disease. Common clinical features of mitochondrial disease – whether involving a mitochondrial or nuclear gene – include ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, proximal myopathy and exercise intolerance, cardiomyopathy, sensorineural deafness, optic atrophy, pigmentary retinopathy, and diabetes mellitus. Common central nervous system findings are fluctuating encephalopathy, seizures, dementia, migraine, stroke-like episodes, ataxia, and spasticity. A high incidence of mid- and late pregnancy loss is a common occurrence that often goes unrecognized. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
182973
Concept ID:
C0917796
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Myoclonus with epilepsy with ragged red fibers

A very rare mitochondrial abnormality characterized by myoclonic epilepsy and the microscopic finding of ragged-red fibers in muscle tissues. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
56486
Concept ID:
C0162672
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Juvenile myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis AND stroke

MELAS syndrome, comprising mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes, is a genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with a variable clinical phenotype. The disorder is accompanied by features of central nervous system involvement, including seizures, hemiparesis, hemianopsia, cortical blindness, and episodic vomiting (Pavlakis et al., 1984; Montagna et al., 1988). Other mitochondrial encephalomyopathies include Leigh syndrome (LS; 256000), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS; 530000), MERRF syndrome (545000), and Leber optic atrophy (535000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
56485
Concept ID:
C0162671
Disease or Syndrome
13.

SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a diagnosis of exclusion which should be made only after a thorough autopsy without identification of a specific cause of death (Mage and Donner, 2004). Weese-Mayer et al. (2007) provided a detailed review of genetic factors that have been implicated in SIDS. The authors concluded that SIDS represents more than 1 entity and has a heterogeneous etiology most likely involving several different genetically controlled metabolic pathways. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
52548
Concept ID:
C0038644
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Parkinson disease

Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
10590
Concept ID:
C0030567
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Alzheimer disease

Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by dementia that typically begins with subtle and poorly recognized failure of memory and slowly becomes more severe and, eventually, incapacitating. Other common findings include confusion, poor judgment, language disturbance, agitation, withdrawal, and hallucinations. Occasionally, seizures, Parkinsonian features, increased muscle tone, myoclonus, incontinence, and mutism occur. Death usually results from general inanition, malnutrition, and pneumonia. The typical clinical duration of the disease is eight to ten years, with a range from one to 25 years. Approximately 25% of all AD is familial (i.e., =2 persons in a family have AD) of which approximately 95% is late onset (age >60-65 years) and 5% is early onset (age <65 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
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