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Cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral

MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: Cryptorchidism; UNDESCENDED TESTIS
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: Cryptorchism (204878001); Cryptorchidism (204878001); Undescended testicle (204878001); UDT - Undescended testes (204878001); Undescended testis (204878001); Maldescent of testis (204878001); Imperfectly descended testis (204878001); IDT - Imperfectly descended testis (204878001)
 
Genes (locations): INSL3 (19p13.11); RXFP2 (13q13.1)
OMIM®: 219050
HPO: HP:0000028

Definition

Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002). [from GTR]

Additional description

From OMIM
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).  http://www.omim.org/entry/219050

Clinical features

Unilateral cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
98467
Concept ID:
C0431664
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of a testis from the scrotum on one side owing to failure of the testis or testes to descend through the inguinal canal to the testis.
Renal agenesis
MedGen UID:
154237
Concept ID:
C0542519
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality characterized by the absence of one or both kidneys.
Unilateral cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
98467
Concept ID:
C0431664
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of a testis from the scrotum on one side owing to failure of the testis or testes to descend through the inguinal canal to the testis.
Renal agenesis
MedGen UID:
154237
Concept ID:
C0542519
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality characterized by the absence of one or both kidneys.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVCryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral

Conditions with this feature

Acrocephalosyndactyly type I
MedGen UID:
7858
Concept ID:
C0001193
Congenital Abnormality
The eight disorders comprising the FGFR-related craniosynostosis spectrum are Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome (isolated coronal synostosis caused by the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant in FGFR3). Muenke syndrome and FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis are characterized only by uni- or bicoronal craniosynostosis; the remainder are characterized by bicoronal craniosynostosis or cloverleaf skull, distinctive facial features, and variable hand and foot findings.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
MedGen UID:
2562
Concept ID:
C0004903
Disease or Syndrome
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a growth disorder variably characterized by neonatal hypoglycemia, macrosomia, macroglossia, hemihyperplasia, omphalocele, embryonal tumors (e.g., Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma), visceromegaly, adrenocortical cytomegaly, renal abnormalities (e.g., medullary dysplasia, nephrocalcinosis, medullary sponge kidney, and nephromegaly), and ear creases/pits. BWS is considered a clinical spectrum, in which affected individuals may have many of these features or may have only one or two clinical features. Early death may occur from complications of prematurity, hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, macroglossia, or tumors. However, the previously reported mortality of 20% is likely an overestimate given better recognition of the disorder along with enhanced treatment options. Macroglossia and macrosomia are generally present at birth but may have postnatal onset. Growth rate slows around age seven to eight years. Hemihyperplasia may affect segmental regions of the body or selected organs and tissues.
Bloom syndrome
MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
Bloom’s syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, sparseness of subcutaneous fat tissue throughout infancy and early childhood, and short stature throughout postnatal life that in most affected individuals is accompanied by an erythematous and sun-sensitive skin lesion of the face. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common and very possibly responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, the middle ear, and the lung that occur repeatedly in most persons with BSyn. Although most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability, many exhibit a poorly defined learning disability. Women may be fertile, but menopause occurs unusually early; men are infertile. Serious medical complications that are much more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus resembling the adult-onset type, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites. BSyn occurs rarely in all national and ethnic groups but is relatively less rare in Ashkenazi Jews.
5p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
41345
Concept ID:
C0010314
Disease or Syndrome
Cri-du-chat syndrome was first described by Lejeune et al. (1963) as a hereditary congenital syndrome associated with deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. The deletions can vary in size from extremely small and involving only band 5p15.2 to the entire short arm. Although the majority of deletions arise as new mutations, approximately 12% result from unbalanced segregation of translocations or recombination involving a pericentric inversion in one of the parents.
Chondroectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
8584
Concept ID:
C0013903
Disease or Syndrome
Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by short limbs, short ribs, postaxial polydactyly, and dysplastic nails and teeth. Congenital cardiac defects, most commonly a defect of primary atrial septation producing a common atrium, occur in 60% of affected individuals (summary by Ruiz-Perez et al., 2000). The clinical features of the Ellis-van Creveld syndrome appear to be identical regardless of whether the disorder is caused by mutation in the EVC gene (604831) or in the EVC2 gene (607261) (Ruiz-Perez et al., 2003, Galdzicka et al., 2002).
Endocardial fibroelastosis
MedGen UID:
4041
Concept ID:
C0014117
Disease or Syndrome
A condition characterized by the thickening of ENDOCARDIUM due to proliferation of fibrous and elastic tissue, usually in the left ventricle leading to impaired cardiac function (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE). It is most commonly seen in young children and rarely in adults. It is often associated with congenital heart anomalies (HEART DEFECTS CONGENITAL;) INFECTION; or gene mutation. Defects in the tafazzin protein, encoded by TAZ gene, result in a form of autosomal dominant familial endocardial fibroelastosis.
Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome
MedGen UID:
5414
Concept ID:
C0018522
Disease or Syndrome
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is characterized by a typical skull shape (brachycephaly with frontal bossing), hypotrichosis, microphthalmia, cataracts, beaked nose, micrognathia, skin atrophy, dental anomalies, and proportionate short stature (Hallermann, 1948; Streiff, 1950; Francois, 1958). Mental retardation is present in a minority of cases (Gorlin et al., 1990).
Lowe syndrome
MedGen UID:
18145
Concept ID:
C0028860
Disease or Syndrome
Lowe syndrome (oculocerebrorenal syndrome) is characterized by involvement of the eyes, central nervous system, and kidneys. Dense congenital cataracts are found in all affected boys and infantile glaucoma in approximately 50%. All boys have impaired vision; corrected acuity is rarely better than 20/100. Generalized hypotonia is noted at birth and is of central (brain) origin. Deep tendon reflexes are usually absent. Hypotonia may slowly improve with age, but normal motor tone and strength are never achieved. Motor milestones are delayed. Almost all affected males have some degree of intellectual disability; 10%-25% function in the low-normal or borderline range, approximately 25% in the mild-to-moderate range, and 50%-65% in the severe-to-profound range of intellectual disability. Affected males have varying degrees of proximal renal tubular dysfunction of the Fanconi type, including bicarbonate wasting and renal tubular acidosis, phosphaturia with hypophosphatemia and renal rickets, aminoaciduria, low molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, sodium and potassium wasting, and polyuria. Fanconi syndrome is usually not clinically apparent in the first few months of life, but symptoms may appear by age six to 12 months. Glomerulosclerosis associated with chronic tubular injury usually results in slowly progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease after age ten to 20 years.
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome
MedGen UID:
10819
Concept ID:
C0032339
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small stature; skeletal and dental abnormalities; cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. The skin is typically normal at birth; the rash of RTS develops between age three and six months as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face and subsequently spreads to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, punctate atrophy, and telangiectasias, collectively known as poikiloderma. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Congenital Abnormality
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Prune belly syndrome
MedGen UID:
18718
Concept ID:
C0033770
Disease or Syndrome
In its rare complete form, 'prune belly' syndrome comprises megacystis (massively enlarged bladder) with disorganized detrusor muscle, cryptorchidism, and thin abdominal musculature with overlying lax skin (summary by Weber et al., 2011).
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome
MedGen UID:
48517
Concept ID:
C0035934
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and great toes, short stature, and moderate to severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal; however, height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Obesity may occur in childhood or adolescence. IQ scores range from 25 to 79; average IQ is between 36 and 51. Other variable findings are coloboma, cataract, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, and cryptorchidism.
Noonan syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
22527
Concept ID:
C0041409
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Zellweger syndrome
MedGen UID:
21958
Concept ID:
C0043459
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders, Zellweger syndrome spectrum (PBD, ZSS) is a continuum comprising three phenotypes — Zellweger syndrome (ZS), the most severe; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD); and infantile Refsum disease (IRD), the least severe — that were originally described before the biochemical and molecular bases of these disorders had been fully determined. Individuals with PBD, ZSS usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. In the newborn period, affected children are hypotonic, feed poorly, and have distinctive facies, seizures, and liver cysts with hepatic dysfunction. Bony stippling (chondrodysplasia punctata) of the patella(e) and other long bones may occur. Infants with ZS are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Older children have retinal dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay with hypotonia, and liver dysfunction. The clinical courses of NALD and IRD are variable and may include developmental delays, hearing loss, vision impairment, liver dysfunction, episodes of hemorrhage, and intracranial bleeding. While some children can be very hypotonic, others learn to walk and talk. The condition is often slowly progressive.
X-linked ichthyosis with steryl-sulfatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
86937
Concept ID:
C0079588
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked ichthyosis is clinically characterized by widespread, dark brown, polygonal scales and generalized dryness. Cutaneous manifestations are present soon after birth and usually do not improve with age. The histopathology of XLI typically shows compact hyperkeratosis and slight acanthosis with a normal granular layer (summary by Takeichi and Akiyama, 2016). X-linked ichthyosis is fundamentally the same disorder as placental steroid sulfatase deficiency, which is often first noted in the pregnant mother of affected males by decreased estrogen or delayed progression of parturition (Alperin and Shapiro, 1997). This is thus an example of affinity ('lumping') of phenotypes thought previously to be separate, the opposite of genetic heterogeneity. Schnyder (1970) gave a useful classification of the inherited ichthyoses. Hernandez-Martin et al. (1999) provided a comprehensive review of X-linked ichthyosis. They pointed out that among all genetic disorders X-linked ichthyosis shows one of the highest ratios of chromosomal deletions; complete deletion has been found in up to 90% of patients. Takeichi and Akiyama (2016) reviewed inherited nonsyndromic forms of ichthyosis.
Malignant tumor of testis
MedGen UID:
56313
Concept ID:
C0153594
Neoplastic Process
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) affect 1 in 500 men and are the most common cancer in males aged 15 to 40 in western European populations. The incidence of TGCT rose dramatically during the 20th century. Known risk factors for TGCT include a history of undescended testis (UDT), testicular dysgenesis, infertility, previously diagnosed TGCT, and a family history of the disease. Brothers of men with TGCT have an 8- to 10-fold risk of developing TGCT, whereas the relative risk to fathers and sons is 4-fold. This familial relative risk is much higher than that for most other types of cancer (summary by Rapley et al., 2000). Genetic Heterogeneity of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors A locus for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT1; 300228) has been identified on chromosome Xq27.
Dubowitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
59797
Concept ID:
C0175691
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, autosomal recessive inherited syndrome characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, and a small, round, triangular shaped face with a pointed, receding chin, a broad, wide-tipped nose, and wide-set eyes with drooping eyelids.
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that progresses from acute (sudden onset; duration <6 months) to recurrent acute (>1 episode of acute pancreatitis) to chronic (duration >6 months). The range of symptoms and disease course vary from person to person. Familial pancreatitis, defined as pancreatitis from any cause that occurs in a family with an incidence that is greater than would be expected by chance alone, can be non-genetic or genetic, the latter including autosomal dominant hereditary pancreatitis and pancreatitis syndromes characterized by pancreatitis or pancreatic insufficiency. The majority of familial pancreatitis appears to have a complex, multigenic, or gene-environmental etiology with a variable number of germline pathogenic variants in genes that affect trypsin regulation, including CASR, CTRC, and CLDN2. Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is defined as either two or more individuals with pancreatitis in two or more generations of a family (i.e., an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance) or pancreatitis associated with a germline PRSS1 disease-causing gain-of-function variant. The phenotype of hereditary pancreatitis is increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis, with complications such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and chronic pain in some affected individuals. Heterozygous pathogenic variants in PRSS1 are found in 60%-100% of families with hereditary pancreatitis, and most large families with pancreatitis spanning multiple generations; biallelic pathogenic variants in SPINK1 or biallelic pathogenic variants in CFTR result in autosomal recessive pancreatitis. Syndromes in which pancreatitis is a finding include: Pearson marrow pancreas syndrome, CEL maturity-onset diabetes of the young (CEL-MODY), and Johanson-Blizzard syndrome. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder, includes pancreatic exocrine insufficiency as well as other features. Idiopathic sporadic pancreatitis is a single occurrence of pancreatitis in a family for which no etiology is identified.
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple anomaly syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide and individuals have been described with normal development and only minor malformations.
Opitz-Frias syndrome
MedGen UID:
104493
Concept ID:
C0175696
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome (XLOS) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by facial anomalies (ocular hypertelorism, prominent forehead, widow's peak, broad nasal bridge, anteverted nares), laryngotracheoesophageal defects, and genitourinary abnormalities (hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and hypoplastic/bifid scrotum). Developmental delay and intellectual disability are observed in about 50% of affected males. Cleft lip and/or palate are present in approximately 50% of affected individuals. Other malformations present in fewer than 50% of individuals include congenital heart defects, imperforate or ectopic anus, and midline brain defects (Dandy-Walker malformation and agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and/or cerebellar vermis). Wide clinical variability occurs even among members of the same family. Female carriers usually manifest only ocular hypertelorism.
Aarskog syndrome
MedGen UID:
61234
Concept ID:
C0175701
Disease or Syndrome
Aarskog-Scott syndrome, also known as faciogenital dysplasia, is an X-linked disorder characterized by short stature, hypertelorism, shawl scrotum, and brachydactyly, although there is wide phenotypic variability and other features, such as joint hyperextensibility, short nose, widow's peak, and inguinal hernia, may also occur. Most patients do not have mental retardation, but some may have neurobehavioral features. Carrier females may present with subtle features, such as widow's peak or short stature (summary by Orrico et al., 2010).
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines
MedGen UID:
104494
Concept ID:
C0175704
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features, including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth retardation resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25(th) percentile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20%, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
64512
Concept ID:
C0206115
Disease or Syndrome
Aniridia is characterized by complete or partial iris hypoplasia usually (but not always) with associated foveal hypoplasia resulting in reduced visual acuity and nystagmus presenting in early infancy. Frequently associated ocular abnormalities (often of later onset) include cataract, glaucoma, and corneal opacification and vascularization. Aniridia may occur either as an isolated ocular abnormality without systemic involvement, caused by mutation of PAX6 or deletion of a regulatory region controlling its expression, or as part of the Wilms tumor-aniridia-genital anomalies-retardation (WAGR) syndrome, with a deletion of 11p13 involving the PAX6 (aniridia) locus and the adjacent WT1 (Wilms tumor) locus. Individuals with deletion of PAX6 and WT1 are at up to a 50% risk of developing Wilms tumor.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita distal type 1
MedGen UID:
113099
Concept ID:
C0220662
Congenital Abnormality
In general, the distal arthrogryposes are a group of disorders characterized by contractures mainly involving the distal parts of the limbs. The hands have a characteristic position with medially overlapping fingers, clenched fists, ulnar deviation of fingers, and camptodactyly, and the feet have deformities. Contractures at other joints are variable; there are no associated visceral anomalies, and intelligence is normal. Classically, DA was defined as being without overt neurologic or muscle disease (Lin et al., 1977 and Hall et al., 1982), although more recent evidence suggests that DA1A due to TPM2 mutations results from muscle dysfunction (Robinson et al., 2007; Mokbel et al., 2013; Davidson et al., 2013). The prototypic distal arthrogryposis is type 1 (DA1), which is characterized largely by camptodactyly and clubfoot. Hypoplasia and/or absence of some interphalangeal creases is common. The shoulders and hips are less frequently affected. While the pattern of affected joints is consistent, the degree to which the joints are affected is highly variable, with equinovarus deformities ranging from mild to severe and hand involvement ranging from isolated hypoplasia of the distal interphalangeal crease of the fifth digit to severely clenched fists and ulnar deviation of the wrist. The various phenotypic forms of distal arthrogryposis are classified hierarchically according to the proportion of features they share with one another and are designated DA1 through DA10 (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). Bamshad et al. (1996) revised the classification by Hall et al. (1982) of the common mendelian arthrogryposis syndromes. Krakowiak et al. (1997) provided a useful classification of the distal arthrogryposes. Genetic Heterogeneity of Distal Arthrogryposes Distal arthrogryposis type 1 includes DA1A, caused by mutation in the TPM2 gene, and DA1B (614335), caused by mutation in the MYBPC1 gene (160794) on chromosome 12q23.2. Other forms include DA2A (Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, 193700), caused by mutation in the MYH3 gene (160720) on chromosome 17p13.1; DA2B (Sheldon-Hall syndrome, 601680), caused by mutation in MYH3, the TNNT3 gene (600692) on chromosome 11p15.5, the TNNI2 gene (191043), also on 11p15.5, or TPM2 (190990) on chromosome 9p13; DA3 (Gordon syndrome, 114300) and DA5 (108145), caused by mutation in the PIEZO2 gene (613629) on chromosome 18p11; DA4 (609128); DA5D (615065), caused by mutation in the ECEL1 gene (605896) on chromosome 2q36; DA6 (108200); DA7 (158300), caused by mutation in the MYH8 gene (160741) on chromosome 17p13.1; DA8 (178110), caused by mutation in the MYH3 gene (160720) on chromosome 17p13; DA9 (121050), caused by mutation in the FBN2 gene (612570) on chromosome 5q23-q31; and DA10 (187370), which maps to chromosome 2q. See 277720 for discussion of a possible autosomal recessive form of DA2A. See 208155 for a description of Illum syndrome, which includes 'whistling face,' central nervous system dysfunction, and calcium deposition in central nervous system and muscle. There are other forms of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), including a lethal congenital form (see LCCS1, 253310).
Gordon syndrome
MedGen UID:
66314
Concept ID:
C0220666
Disease or Syndrome
DA3, or Gordon syndrome, is distinguished from other distal arthrogryposes by short stature and cleft palate (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). There are 2 syndromes with features overlapping those of DA3 that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5; 108145) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS; 248700), which are distinguished by the presence of ocular abnormalities and mental retardation, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders may represent variable expressivity of the same condition. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
KBG syndrome
MedGen UID:
66317
Concept ID:
C0220687
Disease or Syndrome
KBG syndrome is characterized by macrodontia of the upper central incisors, distinctive craniofacial findings, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and neurologic involvement that includes global developmental delay, seizures, and intellectual disability (summary by Sirmaci et al., 2011). Sirmaci et al. (2011) noted that it is likely that KBG syndrome is underdiagnosed, since many of the features, including intellectual disability, are mild, and none of the features is a prerequisite for diagnosis.
Fryns syndrome
MedGen UID:
65088
Concept ID:
C0220730
Disease or Syndrome
Fryns syndrome is characterized by diaphragmatic defects (diaphragmatic hernia, eventration, hypoplasia or agenesis); characteristic facial appearance (coarse facies, ocular hypertelorism, broad and flat nasal bridge, thick nasal tip, long philtrum, low-set and poorly formed ears, tented upper lip, macrostomia, micrognathia); distal digital hypoplasia (nails, terminal phalanges); pulmonary hypoplasia; and associated anomalies (polyhydramnios, cloudy corneas and/or microphthalmia, orofacial clefting, renal dysplasia/renal cortical cysts, and/or malformations involving the brain, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitalia). Survival beyond the neonatal period has been rare. Data on postnatal growth and psychomotor development are limited; however, severe developmental delay and intellectual disability are common.
Craniofrontonasal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
65095
Concept ID:
C0220767
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofrontonasal syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder that shows paradoxically greater severity in heterozygous females than in hemizygous males. Females have frontonasal dysplasia, craniofacial asymmetry, craniosynostosis, bifid nasal tip, grooved nails, wiry hair, and abnormalities of the thoracic skeleton, whereas males typically show only hypertelorism (Twigg et al., 2004; Wieland et al., 2004).
FG syndrome
MedGen UID:
113106
Concept ID:
C0220769
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of MED12-related disorders, which is still being defined, includes at a minimum the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), and X-linked Ohdo syndrome. FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS) is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. A number of individuals with nonsyndromic intellectual disability – including some affected females – have been described.
Treacher Collins syndrome
MedGen UID:
66078
Concept ID:
C0242387
Congenital Abnormality
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by hypoplasia of the zygomatic bones and mandible, external ear abnormalities, coloboma (notching) of the lower eyelid, absence of the lower eyelashes, and preauricular hair displacement onto the cheeks. About 40%-50% of individuals have conductive hearing loss attributed most commonly to malformation (including ankylosis, hypoplasia, or absence) of the ossicles and hypoplasia of the middle ear cavities. Inner ear structures tend to be normal. Other less common abnormalities include cleft palate with or without cleft lip and unilateral or bilateral choanal stenosis or atresia.
Seckel syndrome
MedGen UID:
78534
Concept ID:
C0265202
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive inherited syndrome caused by mutations in the ATR gene, RBBP8 gene, CENPJ gene, CEP152 gene, CEP63 gene, NIN gene, DNA2 gene, or TRAIP gene. It is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, dwarfism, microcephaly, mental retardation, and a "bird-headed" facial appearance.
Robinow syndrome
MedGen UID:
78535
Concept ID:
C0265205
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly); genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis/webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora); dysmorphic facial features; dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth); bilobed tongue; occasional prenatal macrocephaly with postnatal decrease in head circumference. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defect, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by DVL1 pathogenic variants, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Weaver syndrome
MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Neuronal migration disorders have also been reported in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency.
Neu-Laxova syndrome
MedGen UID:
78537
Concept ID:
C0265218
Disease or Syndrome
Neu-Laxova syndrome is an autosomal recessive lethal multiple malformation syndrome characterized by ichthyosis, marked intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly, short neck, central nervous system anomalies (lissencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia and/or abnormal/agenesis of the corpus callosum), limb deformities, hypoplastic lungs, edema, and abnormal facial features including severe proptosis with ectropion, hypertelorism, micrognathia, flattened nose, and malformed ears (summary by Manning et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Neu-Laxova Syndrome NLS2 (616038) is caused by mutation in the PSAT1 gene (610936) on chromosome 9q21.
Miller Dieker syndrome
MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
LIS1-associated lissencephaly includes Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS), and (rarely) subcortical band heterotopia (SBH). Lissencephaly and SBH are cortical malformations caused by deficient neuronal migration during embryogenesis. Lissencephaly refers to a "smooth brain" with absent gyri (agyria) or abnormally wide gyri (pachygyria). SBH refers to a band of heterotopic gray matter located just beneath the cortex and separated from it by a thin zone of normal white matter. MDS is characterized by lissencephaly, typical facial features, and severe neurologic abnormalities. ILS is characterized by lissencephaly and its direct sequelae: developmental delay, intellectual disability, and seizures.
Pallister-Hall syndrome
MedGen UID:
120514
Concept ID:
C0265220
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Hall syndrome (referred to as PHS in this entry) is characterized by a spectrum of anomalies ranging from polydactyly, asymptomatic bifid epiglottis, and hypothalamic hamartoma at the mild end to laryngotracheal cleft with neonatal lethality at the severe end. Individuals with mild PHS may be incorrectly diagnosed as having isolated postaxial polydactyly type A. Individuals with PHS can have pituitary insufficiency and may die as neonates from undiagnosed and untreated adrenal insufficiency.
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Cryptophthalmos syndrome
MedGen UID:
82692
Concept ID:
C0265233
Disease or Syndrome
Fraser syndrome is an autosomal recessive malformation disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and abnormalities of the respiratory and urogenital tract (summary by van Haelst et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fraser Syndrome Fraser syndrome-2 (FRASRS2) is caused by mutation in the FREM2 gene (608945) on chromosome 13q13, and Fraser syndrome-3 (FRASRS3) is caused by mutation in the GRIP1 gene (604597) on chromosome 12q14. See Bowen syndrome (211200) for a comparable but probably distinct syndrome of multiple congenital malformations.
Townes syndrome
MedGen UID:
75555
Concept ID:
C0265246
Congenital Abnormality
Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is characterized by the triad of imperforate anus (84%), dysplastic ears (87%; overfolded superior helices and preauricular tags; frequently associated with sensorineural and/or conductive hearing impairment [65%]), and thumb malformations (89%; triphalangeal thumbs, duplication of the thumb [preaxial polydactyly], and rarely hypoplasia of the thumbs). Renal impairment (42%), including end-stage renal disease (ESRD), may occur with or without structural abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, polycystic kidneys, vesicoutereral reflux). Congenital heart disease occurs in 25%. Foot malformations (52%; flat feet, overlapping toes) and genitourinary malformations (36%) are common. Intellectual disability occurs in approximately 10% of individuals. Rare features include iris coloboma, Duane anomaly, Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1, and growth retardation.
Ruvalcaba syndrome
MedGen UID:
120520
Concept ID:
C0265248
Disease or Syndrome
A dysmorphic syndrome characterized by short stature, microcephaly, mental deficiency, peculiar facies, hypoplastic genitalia, and skeletal anomalies.
Miller syndrome
MedGen UID:
120522
Concept ID:
C0265257
Disease or Syndrome
Miller syndrome, or postaxial acrofacial dysostosis, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids, and supernumerary nipples (summary by Ng et al., 2010).
Popliteal pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
78543
Concept ID:
C0265259
Disease or Syndrome
IRF6-related disorders span a spectrum from isolated cleft lip and palate and Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) at the mild end to popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) at the more severe end. Individuals with VWS show one or more of the following anomalies: Congenital, usually bilateral, paramedian lower-lip fistulae (pits) or sometimes small mounds with a sinus tract leading from a mucous gland of the lip. Cleft lip (CL). Cleft palate (CP). Note: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) is observed about twice as often as CP only. Submucous cleft palate (SMCP). The PPS phenotype includes the following: CL±P. Fistulae of the lower lip. Webbing of the skin extending from the ischial tuberosities to the heels. In males: bifid scrotum and cryptorchidism. In females: hypoplasia of the labia majora. Syndactyly of fingers and/or toes. Anomalies of the skin around the nails. A characteristic pyramidal fold of skin overlying the nail of the hallux (almost pathognomonic). In some non-classic forms of PPS: filiform synechiae connecting the upper and lower jaws (syngnathia) or the upper and lower eyelids (ankyloblepharon). In both VWS and PPS, growth and intelligence are normal.
Multiple pterygium syndrome Escobar type
MedGen UID:
82696
Concept ID:
C0265261
Congenital Abnormality
Multiple pterygium syndromes comprise a group of multiple congenital anomaly disorders characterized by webbing (pterygia) of the neck, elbows, and/or knees and joint contractures (arthrogryposis) (Morgan et al., 2006). The multiple pterygium syndromes are phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous but are traditionally divided into prenatally lethal (253290) and nonlethal (Escobar) types.
Femoral hypoplasia - unusual facies syndrome
MedGen UID:
120523
Concept ID:
C0265263
Disease or Syndrome
Femoral-facial syndrome (FFS), also known as femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome (FHUFS), is a rare and sporadic multiple congenital anomaly syndrome comprising bilateral femoral hypoplasia and characteristic facial features, such as long philtrum, thin upper lip, micrognathia with or without cleft palate, upward-slanting palpebral fissures, and a short nose with broad tip. Other features, such as renal anomalies, are more variable (summary by Nowaczyk et al., 2010).
Atelosteogenesis type 1
MedGen UID:
82701
Concept ID:
C0265283
Congenital Abnormality
The FLNB-related disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild (spondylocarpotarsal synostosis [SCT] syndrome and Larsen syndrome) to severe (atelosteogenesis types I [AOI] and III [AOIII], boomerang dysplasia). SCT syndrome is characterized by disproportionate short stature, block vertebrae, scoliosis and lordosis, carpal and tarsal fusion, club feet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, and mild facial dysmorphisms. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; club feet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; and distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, andwidely spaced eyes). Both can have midline cleft palate and conductive hearing loss. AOIII and AOI are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and club feet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period.
Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
120531
Concept ID:
C0265306
Congenital Abnormality
Typical Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is characterized by preaxial polydactyly or mixed pre- and postaxial polydactyly, true widely spaced eyes, and macrocephaly. Individuals with mild GCPS may have subtle craniofacial findings. The mild end of the GCPS spectrum is a continuum with preaxial polysyndactyly type IV and crossed polydactyly (preaxial polydactyly of the feet and postaxial polydactyly of the hands plus syndactyly of fingers 3-4 and toes 1-3). Individuals with severe GCPS can have seizures, hydrocephalus, and intellectual disability.
Coffin-Siris syndrome
MedGen UID:
75565
Concept ID:
C0265338
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a condition that affects several body systems. Although there are many variable signs and symptoms, hallmarks of this condition include developmental disability, abnormalities of the fifth (pinky) fingers or toes, and characteristic facial features.Most affected individuals have mild to severe intellectual disability or delayed development of speech and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Another feature of Coffin-Siris syndrome is underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the tips of the fingers or toes, or hypoplasia or absence of the nails. These abnormalities are most common on the fifth fingers or toes. In addition, most affected individuals have facial features described as coarse. These typically include a wide nose with a flat nasal bridge, a wide mouth with thick lips, and thick eyebrows and eyelashes. Affected individuals can have excess hair on other parts of the face and body (hirsutism), but scalp hair is often sparse. There is a range of facial features seen in people with Coffin-Siris syndrome, and not all affected individuals have the typical features. In addition, people with this condition may have an abnormally small head (microcephaly).Additionally, some infants and children with Coffin-Siris syndrome have frequent respiratory infections, difficulty feeding, and an inability to gain weight at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Other signs and symptoms that may occur in people with this condition include short stature, low muscle tone (hypotonia), and abnormally loose (lax) joints. Abnormalities of the eyes, brain, heart, and kidneys may also be present.
Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome
MedGen UID:
78557
Concept ID:
C0265339
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, characteristic facies (swelling, p prominent supraorbital ridges and narrow palpebral fissures), obesity, epilepsy, and hypogonadism, and mental deficiency.
CHARGE association
MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
CHARGE is a mnemonic for coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital abnormalities, and ear anomalies. CHARGE syndrome is characterized by the following: Unilateral or bilateral coloboma of the iris, retina-choroid, and/or disc with or without microphthalmos (80%-90% of individuals). Unilateral or bilateral choanal atresia or stenosis (50%-60%). Cranial nerve dysfunction resulting in hyposmia or anosmia, unilateral or bilateral facial palsy (40%), impaired hearing, and/or swallowing problems (70%-90%). Abnormal outer ears, ossicular malformations, Mondini defect of the cochlea and absent or hypoplastic semicircular canals (>90%). Cryptorchidism in males and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in both males and females. Developmental delay. Cardiovascular malformations (75%-85%). Growth deficiency (70%-80%). Orofacial clefts (15%-20%). Tracheoesophageal fistula (15%-20%). Neonates with CHARGE syndrome often have multiple life-threatening medical conditions. Feeding difficulties are a major cause of morbidity in all age groups.
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome
MedGen UID:
82785
Concept ID:
C0268301
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with androgen insensitivity have a 46,XY karyotype and testes that produce age-appropriate androgen levels but have undermasculinized external genitalia due to defects in androgen action. The phenotype in PAIS varies depending on residual androgen receptor function, ranging from severe undermasculinization presenting as female-like external genitalia to male-appearing genitalia. The typical presentation comprises micropenis, severe hypospadias, and bifid scrotum with or without cryptorchidism (summary by Mongan et al., 2015).
Cutis laxa-corneal clouding-oligophrenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
82794
Concept ID:
C0268354
Disease or Syndrome
De Barsy syndrome, or autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III (ARCL3), is characterized by cutis laxa, a progeria-like appearance, and ophthalmologic abnormalities (summary by Kivuva et al., 2008). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see 219100. Genetic Heterogeneity of de Barsy Syndrome Also see ARCL3B (614438), caused by mutation in the PYCR1 gene (179035) on chromosome 17q25.
Deficiency of glycerol kinase
MedGen UID:
82803
Concept ID:
C0268418
Disease or Syndrome
Francke et al. (1987) noted that there are 3 clinically distinct forms of glycerol kinase deficiency: infantile, juvenile, and adult. The infantile form is associated with severe developmental delay, and those with the adult form have no symptoms and are often detected fortuitously. The infantile form of GK deficiency, or the 'GK complex,' results from the Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome (300679) with congenital adrenal hypoplasia (300200) and/or Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD; 310200), whereas the juvenile and adult forms have isolated GK deficiency (Walker et al., 1996).
De Lange syndrome
MedGen UID:
78752
Concept ID:
C0270972
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth retardation (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hirsutism, and upper limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nose with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 7 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
82883
Concept ID:
C0271623
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome
MedGen UID:
137946
Concept ID:
C0340834
Disease or Syndrome
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized lymphatic dysplasia affecting various organs, including the intestinal tract, pericardium, and limbs. Additional features of the disorder include facial dysmorphism and cognitive impairment (summary by Alders et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hennekam Lymphangiectasia-Lymphedema Syndrome See also HKLLS2 (616006), caused by mutation in the FAT4 gene (612411) on chromosome 4q28.
Megaloblastic anemia, thiamine-responsive, with diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
83338
Concept ID:
C0342287
Congenital Abnormality
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMA) is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and diabetes mellitus. Onset of megaloblastic anemia occurs between infancy and adolescence. The anemia is corrected with thiamine treatment, but the red cells remain macrocytic, and anemia can recur when treatment is withdrawn. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss has generally been early and can be detected in toddlers; hearing loss is irreversible and may not be prevented by thiamine treatment. The diabetes mellitus is non-type I in nature, with age of onset from infancy to adolescence. Thiamine treatment may delay onset of diabetes in some individuals.
Congenital adrenal hypoplasia, X-linked
MedGen UID:
87442
Concept ID:
C0342482
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (X-linked AHC) is characterized by infantile-onset acute primary adrenal insufficiency at an average age of three weeks in approximately 60% of affected individuals. Onset in approximately 40% is in childhood. A few individuals present in adulthood with delayed-onset adrenal failure or partial hypogonadism due to partial forms of X-linked AHC. Adrenal insufficiency typically presents acutely in male infants with vomiting, feeding difficulty, dehydration, and shock caused by a salt-wasting episode. Hypoglycemia (sometimes presenting with seizures) or isolated salt loss may be the first symptom of X-linked AHC. Cortisol may be low or within the normal range, which is inappropriately low for a sick child. In older children, adrenal failure may be precipitated by intercurrent illness or stress. If untreated, adrenal insufficiency is rapidly lethal as a result of hyperkalemia, acidosis, hypoglycemia, and shock. Affected males typically have delayed puberty (onset age >14 years) or arrested puberty caused by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Early pubertal development with pubertal arrest has been reported in some cases. Males with classic X-linked AHC are infertile despite treatment with exogenous gonadotropin therapy or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), although testicular sperm extraction-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (TESE-ICSI) has been successful in one case. Carrier females may very occasionally have symptoms of adrenal insufficiency or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a result of skewed X-chromosome inactivation.
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical [90%] or infra- or supra-auricular [60%]) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous “hemangiomatous” lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7(th) cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
Roberts syndrome (RBS) is characterized by prenatal growth retardation (ranging from mild to severe), craniofacial findings (including microcephaly and cleft lip and/or palate) and limb malformations (including bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening). Upper limbs are more severely affected than lower limbs. Other limb malformations include oligodactyly with thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, syndactyly, clinodactyly, and elbow and knee flexion contractures. Craniofacial abnormalities include cleft lip and/or cleft palate, premaxillary prominence, micrognathia, microbrachycephaly, malar flattening, downslanted palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos resulting from shallow orbits, corneal clouding, underdeveloped ala nasi, beaked nose, and ear malformations. Intellectual disability is reported in the majority of affected individuals. Mortality is high among severely affected pregnancies and newborns. Mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood.
Ochoa syndrome
MedGen UID:
98015
Concept ID:
C0403555
Congenital Abnormality
Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is characterized by prenatal or infantile onset of urinary bladder voiding dysfunction, abnormal facial movement with expression (resulting from abnormal co-contraction of the corners of the mouth and eyes), and often bowel dysfunction (constipation and/or encopresis). Bladder voiding dysfunction increases the risk for urinary incontinence, megacystis, vesicoureteric reflux, hydroureteronephrosis, urosepsis, and progressive renal impairment.
Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
The neonatal progeroid syndrome, also known as Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, variable mental impairment, and death in childhood (summary by Toriello, 1990).
Wrinkly skin syndrome
MedGen UID:
98030
Concept ID:
C0406587
Disease or Syndrome
ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa, also known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2A (ARCL2A), spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes Debré-type cutis laxa at the severe end and wrinkly skin syndrome at the mild end. Affected individuals have furrowing of the skin of the whole body that improves with time. They may have other evidence of a generalized connective disorder, including enlarged anterior fontanelle in infancy, congenital dislocation of the hips, inguinal hernias, and high myopia. In most (not all) affected individuals, cortical and cerebellar malformations are present and are associated with severe developmental delays, seizures, and neurologic regression.
Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis
MedGen UID:
140807
Concept ID:
C0406612
Congenital Abnormality
Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by ocular anomalies, skin lesions, and central nervous system (CNS) anomalies (Moog et al., 2007). The malformations in ECCL are patchy and asymmetric. The most characteristic skin anomaly is nevus psiloliparus, a well-demarcated, alopecic fatty tissue nevus on the scalp, seen in 80% of affected individuals. Other dermatologic features include frontotemporal or zygomatic subcutaneous fatty lipomas, non-scarring alopecia, focal dermal hypoplasia or aplasia of the scalp, periocular skin tags, and pigmentary abnormalities following the lines of Blaschko. Choristomas of the eye (epibulbar dermoids or lipodermoids) are also present in 80% of patients, and can be unilateral or bilateral. Characteristic CNS features in ECCL include intracranial and intraspinal lipomas, seen in 61% of patients, and less often cerebral asymmetry, arachnoid cysts, enlarged ventricles, and leptomeningeal angiomatosis. A predisposition to low-grade gliomas has also been observed. Seizures and intellectual disability are common, but one-third of affected individuals have normal intellect. Skeletal manifestations include bone cysts and jaw tumors, such as odontomas, osteomas, and ossifying fibromas (summary by Bennett et al., 2016).
Severe X-linked myotubular myopathy
MedGen UID:
98374
Concept ID:
C0410203
Congenital Abnormality
X-linked centronuclear myopathy (XLCNM) (also known as myotubular myopathy [MTM]) is characterized by muscle weakness that ranges from severe to mild. Severe (classic) XLCNM presents prenatally with polyhydramnios and decreased fetal movement and in newborns with weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory distress. Affected males have significantly delayed motor milestones and most fail to achieve independent ambulation. Weakness is profound and often involves facial and extraocular muscles. Respiratory failure is nearly uniform, with most affected individuals requiring 24-hour ventilatory assistance. A minority of males with severe XLCNM die in infancy. Males with moderate XLCNM achieve motor milestones more quickly than males with the severe form; about 40% require no ventilator support or intermittent support. Males with mild XLCNM may require ventilatory support only in the newborn period; they have minimally delayed motor milestones, are able to walk, and may lack myopathic facies. The muscle disease of XLCNM is not obviously progressive. Female carriers of XLCNM are generally asymptomatic, although rare manifesting heterozygotes have been described.
Lethal Kniest-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
98144
Concept ID:
C0432208
Lenz-Majewski hyperostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
98483
Concept ID:
C0432269
Congenital Abnormality
Lenz-Majewski hyperostotic dwarfism is a rare condition characterized by intellectual disability, sclerosing bone dysplasia, distinct craniofacial and dental anomalies, loose skin, and distal limb anomalies, particularly brachydactyly and symphalangism. Patients have multiple radiographic abnormalities due to progressive generalized hyperostosis that affects the cranium, vertebrae, and diaphyses of tubular bones, leading to severe growth retardation (summary by Sousa et al., 2014).
Osteoglophonic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
96592
Concept ID:
C0432283
Congenital Abnormality
Osteoglophonic dysplasia is a condition characterized by abnormal bone growth that leads to severe head and face (craniofacial) abnormalities, dwarfism, and other features. The term osteoglophonic refers to the bones (osteo-) having distinctive hollowed out (-glophonic) areas that appear as holes on x-ray images.Premature fusion of certain bones in the skull (craniosynostosis) typically occurs in osteoglophonic dysplasia. The craniosynostosis associated with this disorder may give the head a tall appearance, often referred to in the medical literature as a tower-shaped skull, or a relatively mild version of a deformity called a cloverleaf skull. Characteristic facial features in people with osteoglophonic dysplasia include a prominent forehead (frontal bossing), widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), flattening of the bridge of the nose and of the middle of the face (midface hypoplasia), a large tongue (macroglossia), a protruding jaw (prognathism), and a short neck. People with this condition usually have no visible teeth because the teeth never emerge from the jaw (clinical anodontia). In addition, the gums are often overgrown (hypertrophic gingiva).Infants with osteoglophonic dysplasia often experience failure to thrive, which means they do not gain weight and grow at the expected rate. Affected individuals have short, bowed legs and arms and are short in stature. They also have flat feet and short, broad hands and fingers.The life expectancy of people with osteoglophonic dysplasia depends on the extent of their craniofacial abnormalities; those that obstruct the air passages and affect the mouth and teeth can lead to respiratory problems and cause difficulty with eating and drinking. Despite the skull abnormalities, intelligence is generally not affected in this disorder.
Deletion of short arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96604
Concept ID:
C0432442
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic syndrome characterized by the deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18. It is associated with mental and growth retardation, prominent ears and ptosis.
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic syndrome characterized by the deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18. It is associated with short stature, hypotonia, mental retardation, and hand, foot, skull and facial abnormalities.
Floating-Harbor syndrome
MedGen UID:
152667
Concept ID:
C0729582
Disease or Syndrome
Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features; low birth weight, normal head circumference, and short stature; bone age delay that normalizes between ages six and 12 years; skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, clubbing, clinodactyly, short thumbs, prominent joints, clavicular abnormalities); severe receptive and expressive language impairment; hypernasality and high-pitched voice; and intellectual disability that is typically mild to moderate. Difficulties with temperament and behavior that are present in many children tend to improve in adulthood. Other features can include: hyperopia and/or strabismus; conductive hearing loss; seizures; gastroesophageal reflux; renal anomalies (e.g., hydronephrosis/renal pelviectasis, cysts, and/or agenesis) and genital anomalies (e.g., hypospadias and/or undescended testes).
Cockayne syndrome B
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or “moderate” form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome (COFS) or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II; CS type III, a milder form; Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS). CS type I (moderate CS) is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II (severe CS or early-onset CS) is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age seven years. CS type III (mild CS or late-onset CS) is characterized by essentially normal growth and cognitive development or by late onset. Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS) includes facial freckling and early skin cancers typical of XP and some features typical of CS, including intellectual disability, spasticity, short stature, and hypogonadism. XP-CS does not include skeletal involvement, the facial phenotype of CS, or CNS dysmyelination and calcifications.
Cockayne syndrome type A
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or “moderate” form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome (COFS) or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II; CS type III, a milder form; Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS). CS type I (moderate CS) is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II (severe CS or early-onset CS) is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age seven years. CS type III (mild CS or late-onset CS) is characterized by essentially normal growth and cognitive development or by late onset. Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS) includes facial freckling and early skin cancers typical of XP and some features typical of CS, including intellectual disability, spasticity, short stature, and hypogonadism. XP-CS does not include skeletal involvement, the facial phenotype of CS, or CNS dysmyelination and calcifications.
Recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome
MedGen UID:
167070
Concept ID:
C0795822
Disease or Syndrome
Recombinant 8 syndrome is a condition that involves heart and urinary tract abnormalities, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and a distinctive facial appearance. The characteristic facial features include a wide, square face; a thin upper lip; a downturned mouth; a small chin (micrognathia); wide-set eyes (hypertelorism); and low-set or unusually shaped ears. People with recombinant 8 syndrome may have overgrowth of the gums (gingival hyperplasia) and abnormal tooth development. Males with this condition frequently have undescended testes (cryptorchidism). Some affected individuals have recurrent ear infections (otitis media) or hearing loss. Many children with recombinant 8 syndrome do not survive past early childhood, usually due to complications related to their heart abnormalities.
Chromosome 9q deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
208639
Concept ID:
C0795833
Disease or Syndrome
Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability, childhood hypotonia, and distinctive facial features. The majority of individuals function in the moderate to severe spectrum of intellectual disability although a few individuals have mild delay and total IQ around 70. Although most have severe expressive speech delay with little speech development, general language development is usually at a higher level, making nonverbal communication possible. A complex pattern of other findings can also be observed including heart defects, renal/urologic defects, genital defects in males, severe respiratory infections, epilepsy/febrile seizures, autistic-like features in childhood, and extreme apathy or catatonic-like features after puberty.
11q partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
162878
Concept ID:
C0795841
Disease or Syndrome
Jacobsen syndrome is a condition caused by a loss of genetic material from chromosome 11. Because this deletion occurs at the end (terminus) of the long (q) arm of chromosome 11, Jacobsen syndrome is also known as 11q terminal deletion disorder.The signs and symptoms of Jacobsen syndrome vary considerably. Most affected individuals have delayed development, including the development of speech and motor skills (such as sitting, standing, and walking). Most also have cognitive impairment and learning difficulties. Behavioral problems have been reported, including compulsive behavior (such as shredding paper), a short attention span, and easy distractibility. Many people with Jacobsen syndrome have been diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Jacobsen syndrome is also associated with an increased likelihood of autism spectrum disorders, which are characterized by impaired communication and socialization skills.Jacobsen syndrome is also characterized by distinctive facial features. These include small and low-set ears, widely set eyes (hypertelorism) with droopy eyelids (ptosis), skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds), a broad nasal bridge, downturned corners of the mouth, a thin upper lip, and a small lower jaw. Affected individuals often have a large head size (macrocephaly) and a skull abnormality called trigonocephaly, which gives the forehead a pointed appearance.More than 90 percent of people with Jacobsen syndrome have a bleeding disorder called Paris-Trousseau syndrome. This condition causes a lifelong risk of abnormal bleeding and easy bruising. Paris-Trousseau syndrome is a disorder of platelets, which are blood cell fragments that are necessary for blood clotting.Other features of Jacobsen syndrome can include heart defects, feeding difficulties in infancy, short stature, frequent ear and sinus infections, and skeletal abnormalities. The disorder can also affect the digestive system, kidneys, and genitalia. The life expectancy of people with Jacobsen syndrome is unknown, although affected individuals have lived into adulthood.
Chromosome 16-related alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
162892
Concept ID:
C0795917
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATRX) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, severe developmental delays, hypotonia, intellectual disability, and mild-to-moderate anemia secondary to alpha-thalassemia. Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short nose, tented vermilion of the upper lip, and thick or everted vermilion of the lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. Although all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies range from hypospadias and undescended testicles to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Global developmental delays are evident in infancy and some affected individuals never walk independently or develop significant speech.
Faciocardiorenal syndrome
MedGen UID:
208649
Concept ID:
C0795936
Disease or Syndrome
A syndrome of characteristic facies, horseshoe kidney, congenital heart defect, and delayed mental and physical development.
Pseudoaminopterin syndrome
MedGen UID:
163196
Concept ID:
C0795939
Disease or Syndrome
The pseudoaminopterin syndrome (aminopterin syndrome sine aminopterin; ASSA) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by ossification defects of the skull, dysmorphic facial features, delayed development, and variable limb defects. The clinical features resemble the embryopathy caused by maternal treatment with the folic acid antagonist aminopterin, which has been recognized since 1952 (Thiersch, 1952) when aminopterin was used as an abortifacient. The characteristic phenotype of the children who survived infancy after having been exposed to aminopterin or its methyl derivative, methotrexate, in early pregnancy included a very unusual facies, skull anomalies, and skeletal defects (summary by Fraser et al., 1987).
Filippi syndrome
MedGen UID:
163197
Concept ID:
C0795940
Disease or Syndrome
Filippi syndrome is characterized by short stature, microcephaly, syndactyly, intellectual disability, and facial dysmorphism consisting of bulging forehead, broad and prominent nasal bridge, and diminished alar flare. Common features include cryptorchidism, speech impairment, and clinodactyly of the fifth finger, Some patients exhibit visual disturbances, polydactyly, seizures, and/or ectodermal abnormalities, such as nail hypoplasia, long eyelashes, hirsutism, and microdontia (summary by Hussain et al., 2014).
Fine-Lubinsky syndrome
MedGen UID:
163198
Concept ID:
C0795941
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of psychomotor delay, brachycephaly with flat face, small nose, microstomia, cleft palate, cataract, hearing loss, hypoplastic scrotum and digital anomalies. Less than 10 patients have been described in the literature so far. Although the majority of reported cases were sporadic, the syndrome has been reported in one pair of siblings (a brother and sister) with an apparently autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.
Harrod Doman Keele syndrome
MedGen UID:
162895
Concept ID:
C0795970
Disease or Syndrome
The association of intellectual deficit, facial dysmorphism (a highly arched palate, pointed chin, and small mouth, hypotelorism, a long nose and large protruding ears), arachnodactyly, hypogenitalism (undescended testes and hypospadias) and failure to thrive. So far, it has been described in three males (including two brothers). An autosomal recessive mode of transmission has been suggested.
Mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome X-linked, 1
MedGen UID:
167093
Concept ID:
C0796003
Disease or Syndrome
The term 'X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome' comprises several syndromes previously reported separately. These include Juberg-Marsidi, Carpenter-Waziri, Holmes-Gang, and Smith-Fineman-Myers syndromes as well as 1 family with X-linked mental retardation with spastic paraplegia. All these syndromes were found to be caused by mutation in the XH2 gene and are characterized primarily by severe mental retardation, dysmorphic facies, and a highly skewed X-inactivation pattern in carrier women (Abidi et al., 2005). Other more variable features include hypogonadism, deafness, renal anomalies, and mild skeletal defects. X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X; 301040) is an allelic disorder with a similar phenotype with the addition of alpha-thalassemia and Hb H inclusion bodies in erythrocytes.
Kabuki syndrome
MedGen UID:
162897
Concept ID:
C0796004
Congenital Abnormality
Kabuki syndrome is a disorder that affects many parts of the body. It is characterized by distinctive facial features including arched eyebrows; long eyelashes; long openings of the eyelids (long palpebral fissures) with the lower lids turned out (everted) at the outside edges; a flat, broadened tip of the nose; and large protruding earlobes. The name of this disorder comes from the resemblance of its characteristic facial appearance to stage makeup used in traditional Japanese Kabuki theater.People with Kabuki syndrome have mild to severe developmental delay and intellectual disability. Affected individuals may also have seizures, an unusually small head size (microcephaly), or weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Some have eye problems such as rapid, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) or eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus).Other characteristic features of Kabuki syndrome include short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis), short fifth (pinky) fingers, or problems with the hip and knee joints. The roof of the mouth may have an abnormal opening (cleft palate) or be high and arched, and dental problems are common in affected individuals. People with Kabuki syndrome may also have fingerprints with unusual features and fleshy pads at the tips of the fingers. These prominent finger pads are called fetal finger pads because they normally occur in human fetuses; in most people they disappear before birth.A wide variety of other health problems occur in some people with Kabuki syndrome. Among the most commonly reported are heart abnormalities, frequent ear infections (otitis media), hearing loss, and early puberty.
Kapur Toriello syndrome
MedGen UID:
208654
Concept ID:
C0796005
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare syndrome with characteristics of facial dysmorphism, severe intellectual deficiency, cardiac and intestinal anomalies, and growth retardation. Only four cases have been reported in the literature, in three unrelated families. Dysmorphic features include bilateral cleft lip and palate, bulbous nasal tip and eye anomalies. The condition seems to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay/intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Lenz microphthalmia syndrome
MedGen UID:
162898
Concept ID:
C0796016
Congenital Abnormality
Lenz microphthalmia syndrome (LMS) is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or clinical anophthalmia with malformations of the ears, teeth, fingers, skeleton, and/or genitourinary system. Microphthalmia is often accompanied by microcornea and glaucoma. Coloboma is present in approximately 60% of microphthalmic eyes with severity ranging from isolated iris coloboma to coloboma of the ciliary body, choroid, and optic disk. Ears may be low set, anteverted, posteriorly rotated, simple, cup shaped, or abnormally modeled. Hearing loss has been observed. Dental findings include irregularly shaped, missing, or widely spaced teeth. Duplicated thumbs, syndactyly, clinodactyly, camptodactyly, and microcephaly are common, as are narrow/sloping shoulders, underdeveloped clavicles, kyphoscoliosis, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, long cylindric thorax, and webbed neck. Genitourinary anomalies include hypospadias, cryptorchidism, renal hypoplasia/aplasia, and hydroureter. Approximately 60% of affected males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability or developmental delay.
Marden-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
163206
Concept ID:
C0796033
Disease or Syndrome
A constellation of immobile facies, blepharophimosis, micrognathia, microcephaly, midfacial hypoplasia, multiple contractures, hypotonia, arachnodactyly, developmental delay, and other anomalies.
Martsolf syndrome
MedGen UID:
208658
Concept ID:
C0796037
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of intellectual deficit, congenital cataract, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Less than 20 cases have been described in the literature so far. Besides the three main features of the syndrome, other anomalies have been reported in some of the affected patients including short stature, minor digital abnormalities, microcephaly, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and mild facial dysmorphism (micrognathia, maxilla hypoplasia, low posterior hairline and large ears). Mutations in the RAB3GAP2 gene have been identified in some patients. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
McDonough syndrome
MedGen UID:
162902
Concept ID:
C0796038
Disease or Syndrome
Belongs to the group of multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndromes with intellectual deficit, distinctive facies (upward slanting palpebral fissures, squint), kyphoscoliosis, diastasis recti, cryptorchidism, and a congenital heart defect. Autosomal recessive inheritance suggested.
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
163214
Concept ID:
C0796092
Disease or Syndrome
Orbital cysts and other eye defects, multiple cerebral anomalies, and focal dermal defects are the principal characteristics of this syndrome.
Mental retardation, congenital heart disease, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis and hypoplastic teeth
MedGen UID:
162905
Concept ID:
C0796094
Disease or Syndrome
A syndrome of delayed development, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, dental hypoplasia, deafness, heart defect, cryptorchidism and scrotal hypoplasia in males, and other abnormalities.
C syndrome
MedGen UID:
167105
Concept ID:
C0796095
Disease or Syndrome
The C syndrome, also known as Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome, is a malformation syndrome characterized by trigonocephaly, severe mental retardation, hypotonia, variable cardiac defects, redundant skin, and dysmorphic facial features, including upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and low-set, posteriorly rotated ears (summary by Kaname et al., 2007). C syndrome shows phenotypic overlap with Bohring-Opitz syndrome, or C-like syndrome (605039), a disorder with more severe features than C syndrome, caused by heterozygous mutation in the ASXL1 gene (612990) on chromosome 20q11.
Renal hamartomas nephroblastomatosis and fetal gigantism
MedGen UID:
162909
Concept ID:
C0796113
Disease or Syndrome
Perlman syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital overgrowth syndrome with similarities to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS; 130650). Affected children are large at birth, are hypotonic, and show organomegaly, characteristic facial dysmorphisms (inverted V-shaped upper lip, prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, broad and flat nasal bridge, and low-set ears), renal anomalies (nephromegaly and hydronephrosis), frequent neurodevelopmental delay, and high neonatal mortality. Perlman syndrome is associated with a high risk of Wilms tumor, with a 64% incidence in infants surviving beyond the neonatal period. The tumor is diagnosed at an earlier age in these individuals compared with sporadic cases (less than 2 years and 3-4 years of age, respectively), and there is a high frequency of bilateral tumors (55%). Histologic examination of the kidneys in children with Perlman syndrome shows frequent nephroblastomatosis, which is a precursor lesion for Wilms tumor (summary by Astuti et al., 2012).
Proud Levine Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
163217
Concept ID:
C0796124
Disease or Syndrome
Proud syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe mental retardation, seizures, and spasticity. Males are severely affected, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Proud et al., 1992). Proud syndrome is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome to infantile spasms without brain malformations (EIEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008).
Acrocallosal syndrome, Schinzel type
MedGen UID:
162915
Concept ID:
C0796147
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome
MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Congenital Abnormality
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacies (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild to severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti/umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and GI anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors, including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Snyder Robinson syndrome
MedGen UID:
162918
Concept ID:
C0796160
Disease or Syndrome
Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome characterized by asthenic build, facial dysmorphism with a prominent lower lip, kyphoscoliosis, osteoporosis, and speech abnormalities. Developmental delay usually presents as failure to meet early developmental milestones and then evolves to moderate to profound global intellectual disability (which appears to remain stable over time) and variable motor disability. Asthenic habitus and low muscle mass usually develop during the first year, even in males who are ambulatory. During the first decade, males with SRS develop osteoporosis, resulting in fractures in the absence of trauma.
Toriello Carey syndrome
MedGen UID:
163225
Concept ID:
C0796184
Disease or Syndrome
The Toriello-Carey syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable systemic manifestations, most commonly including mental retardation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, postnatal growth delay, cardiac defects, usually septal defects, distal limb defects, and urogenital anomalies in affected males. Patients have facial dysmorphic features, micrognathia, including full cheeks, hypertelorism, flattened nasal bridge, anteverted nares, and short neck. Not all features are found in all patients and some patients may have additional features such as anal anomalies or hernias (review by Toriello et al., 2003).
Carnevale syndrome
MedGen UID:
167115
Concept ID:
C0796279
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
Hajdu-Cheney syndrome
MedGen UID:
182961
Concept ID:
C0917715
Disease or Syndrome
Hajdu-Cheney syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature, coarse and dysmorphic facies, bowing of the long bones, and vertebral anomalies. Facial features include hypertelorism, bushy eyebrows, micrognathia, small mouth with dental anomalies, low-set ears, and short neck. There is progressive focal bone destruction, including acroosteolysis and generalized osteoporosis. Additional and variable features include hearing loss, renal cysts, and cardiovascular anomalies (summary by Ramos et al., 1998; Simpson et al., 2011; Isidor et al., 2011).
McKusick Kaufman syndrome
MedGen UID:
184924
Concept ID:
C0948368
Disease or Syndrome
McKusick-Kaufman syndrome (MKS) is characterized by the combination of postaxial polydactyly (PAP), congenital heart disease (CHD), and hydrometrocolpos (HMC) in females and genital malformations in males (most commonly hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and chordee). HMC in infants usually presents as a large cystic abdominal mass arising out of the pelvis, caused by dilatation of the vagina and uterus as a result of the accumulation of cervical secretions from maternal estrogen stimulation. HMC can be caused by failure of the distal third of the vagina to develop (vaginal agenesis), a transverse vaginal membrane, or an imperforate hymen. Cardiac malformations that have been described at least once in individuals with MKS include atrioventricularis (AV) communis with a left-sided superior vena cava, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, AV canal, small aorta and hypoplastic left ventricle, tetralogy of Fallot, and patent ductus arteriosus.
Dyskeratosis congenita X-linked
MedGen UID:
216941
Concept ID:
C1148551
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Carpenter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
226897
Concept ID:
C1275078
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal features of acrocephaly with variable synostosis of the sagittal, lambdoid, and coronal sutures; peculiar facies; brachydactyly of the hands with syndactyly; preaxial polydactyly and syndactyly of the feet; congenital heart defects; growth retardation; mental retardation; hypogenitalism; and obesity. In addition, cerebral malformations, oral and dental abnormalities, coxa valga, genu valgum, hydronephrosis, precocious puberty, and hearing loss may be observed (summary by Altunhan et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Carpenter Syndrome Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2; 614976), in which the features of Carpenter syndrome are sometimes associated with defective lateralization, is caused by mutation in the MEGF8 gene (604267).
Pena-Shokeir syndrome type I
MedGen UID:
220903
Concept ID:
C1276035
Disease or Syndrome
The fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous constellation of features including fetal akinesia, intrauterine growth retardation, arthrogryposis, and developmental anomalies, including lung hypoplasia, cleft palate, and cryptorchidism (Vogt et al., 2009). It shows phenotypic overlap with the lethal form of multiple pterygium syndrome (see 253290).
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
220983
Concept ID:
C1303073
Disease or Syndrome
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is characterized by sparse scalp hair, prominence of the inter-phalangeal joints and distal phalanges due to decreased subcutaneous fat, characteristic coarse facial features, microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay/intellectual disability. Seizures are of various types and can be difficult to manage. Developmental delay/intellectual disability (ID) is severe in nearly a half, moderate in a third, and mild in the remainder. Nearly a third never develop speech or language skills.
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome
MedGen UID:
231160
Concept ID:
C1321551
Congenital Abnormality
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by: craniosynostosis of the coronal, sagittal, or lambdoid sutures; dolichocephaly; distinctive craniofacial features; skeletal changes (dolichostenomelia, arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, pes planus, pectus excavatum or carinatum, scoliosis, joint hypermobility or contractures and C1/C2 spine malformation); neurologic abnormalities; intellectual disability; and brain anomalies (hydrocephalus, dilatation of the lateral ventricles, and Chiari 1 malformation). Cardiovascular anomalies may include mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation/incompetence, aortic regurgitation, and aortic root dilatation. Minimal subcutaneous fat, abdominal wall defects, myopia, and cryptorchidism in males are also characteristic findings.
WT limb blood syndrome
MedGen UID:
231231
Concept ID:
C1327917
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome is characterised by haematological anomalies (Fanconi anaemia, leukaemia and lymphoma) often appearing during childhood. Anomalies of the limbs and hands are also present: bifid or hypoplastic thumbs, cutaneous syndactyly and ulnar and radial defects. The syndrome has been described in several families. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Kallmann syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
295872
Concept ID:
C1563719
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Kallmann syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
289648
Concept ID:
C1563720
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Opitz G/BBB syndrome
MedGen UID:
321463
Concept ID:
C1801950
Disease or Syndrome
Features of the Opitz GBBB syndrome include hypertelorism or telecanthus; laryngotracheoesophageal cleft; clefts of lip, palate, and uvula; swallowing difficulty and hoarse cry; genitourinary defects, especially hypospadias in males and splayed labia majora in females; mental retardation; developmental delay; and congenital heart defects. The Opitz GBBB syndrome was earlier thought to be 2 separate X-linked syndromes called the G syndrome and the BBB syndrome; both were listed in the X-linked catalog as recently as the seventh edition of MIM (1986). The Opitz GBBB syndrome is genetically heterogeneous, with both autosomal dominant and X-linked (300000) forms. Robin et al. (1996) compared the phenotypic features of the X-linked and autosomal forms. They found that anteverted nares and posterior pharyngeal cleft were seen only in the X-linked form. However, all other manifestations of the syndrome, such as hypertelorism, swallowing difficulties, hypospadias, and developmental delay, were seen in both forms.
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
316937
Concept ID:
C1832229
Disease or Syndrome
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a disorder of morphogenesis that results in abnormal development of the anterior segment of the eye, which results in blindness from glaucoma in approximately 50% of affected individuals. Systemic abnormalities, including cardiac and dental anomalies, are associated. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity and nomenclature of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, see RIEG1 (180500).
Microphthalmia syndromic 8
MedGen UID:
330469
Concept ID:
C1832440
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia syndromic 9
MedGen UID:
318679
Concept ID:
C1832661
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma comprise the MAC spectrum of ocular malformations. Microphthalmia refers to a globe with a total axial length that is at least two standard deviations below the mean for age. Anophthalmia refers to complete absence of the globe in the presence of ocular adnexa (eyelids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus). Coloboma refers to the ocular malformations that result from failure of closure of the optic fissure. Chorioretinal coloboma refers to coloboma of the retina and choroid. Iris coloboma causes the iris to appear keyhole-shaped. Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma may be unilateral or bilateral; when bilateral they may occur in any combination.
Microgastria limb reduction defect
MedGen UID:
322532
Concept ID:
C1834929
Disease or Syndrome
Larsen syndrome, dominant type
MedGen UID:
320634
Concept ID:
C1835564
The FLNB-related disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild (spondylocarpotarsal synostosis [SCT] syndrome and Larsen syndrome) to severe (atelosteogenesis types I [AOI] and III [AOIII], boomerang dysplasia). SCT syndrome is characterized by disproportionate short stature, block vertebrae, scoliosis and lordosis, carpal and tarsal fusion, club feet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, and mild facial dysmorphisms. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; club feet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; and distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, andwidely spaced eyes). Both can have midline cleft palate and conductive hearing loss. AOIII and AOI are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and club feet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period.
Holoprosencephaly 9
MedGen UID:
324369
Concept ID:
C1835819
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a structural anomaly of the brain in which there is failed or incomplete separation of the forebrain early in gestation. Classic HPE encompasses a continuum of brain malformations including (in order of decreasing severity): alobar, semilobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV) type HPE; a septopreoptic type has also been described. Other CNS abnormalities not specific to HPE may also occur. HPE is accompanied by a spectrum of characteristic craniofacial anomalies in approximately 80% of individuals with HPE. Developmental delay is present in virtually all individuals with the HPE spectrum of CNS anomalies. Seizures and pituitary dysfunction are common. Most affected fetuses do not survive; severely affected children typically do not survive beyond early infancy, while a significant proportion of more mildly affected children survive past 12 months. Mildly manifesting individuals without appreciable brain anomalies on conventional neuroimaging may be described as having “microform” HPE.
Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelination, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease
MedGen UID:
373160
Concept ID:
C1836727
Disease or Syndrome
PCWH syndrome is a complex neurocristopathy that includes features of 4 distinct syndromes: peripheral demyelinating neuropathy (see 118200), central dysmyelination, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease (see 142623) (Inoue et al., 2004). Inoue et al. (2004) proposed the acronym PCWH for this disorder.
Emanuel syndrome
MedGen UID:
323030
Concept ID:
C1836929
Disease or Syndrome
Emanuel syndrome is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, hypotonia, severe global developmental delays, ear anomalies, preauricular tags or pits, cleft or high-arched palate, congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and genital abnormalities in males.
Sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome
MedGen UID:
332428
Concept ID:
C1837371
Disease or Syndrome
Sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome (SIDDT) is a rare condition that is fatal in the first year of life; its major features include abnormalities of the reproductive system in males, feeding difficulties, and breathing problems.Infants with SIDDT who are genetically male, with one X chromosome and one Y chromosome in each cell, have underdeveloped or abnormal testes. They may also have external genitalia that appear female or that do not look clearly male or clearly female (ambiguous genitalia). In affected infants who are genetically female, with two X chromosomes in each cell, development of the internal and external reproductive organs is normal.SIDDT is associated with abnormal development of the brain, particularly the brainstem, which is the part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord. The brainstem regulates many basic body functions, including heart rate, breathing, eating, and sleeping. It also relays information about movement and the senses between the brain and the rest of the body. Many features of SIDDT appear to be related to brainstem malfunction, including a slow or uneven heart rate, abnormal breathing patterns, difficulty controlling body temperature, unusual tongue and eye movements, abnormal reflexes, seizures, and feeding difficulties. Affected infants also have an unusual cry that has been described as similar to the bleating of a goat, which is probably a result of abnormal nerve connections between the brain and the voicebox (larynx).The brainstem abnormalities lead to death in the first year of life, when affected infants suddenly stop breathing or their heart stops beating (cardiorespiratory arrest).
Cleft palate, cardiac defect, genital anomalies, and ectrodactyly
MedGen UID:
324947
Concept ID:
C1838121
Disease or Syndrome
CODAS syndrome
MedGen UID:
333031
Concept ID:
C1838180
Disease or Syndrome
CODAS is an acronym for cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. CODAS syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a distinctive constellation of features that includes developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, cataracts, ptosis, median nasal groove, delayed tooth eruption, hearing loss, short stature, delayed epiphyseal ossification, metaphyseal hip dysplasia, and vertebral coronal clefts (summary by Strauss et al., 2015).
Warburg micro syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
333142
Concept ID:
C1838625
Disease or Syndrome
Puerto rican infant hypotonia syndrome
MedGen UID:
333148
Concept ID:
C1838651
Widow peak syndrome
MedGen UID:
374133
Concept ID:
C1839112
Disease or Syndrome
Torticollis keloids cryptorchidism renal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
326819
Concept ID:
C1839129
Disease or Syndrome
SCARF syndrome
MedGen UID:
326461
Concept ID:
C1839321
Disease or Syndrome
Prieto X-linked mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
374294
Concept ID:
C1839730
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation syndrome with facial abnormalities, subcortical cerebral atrophy, defective tooth development, skin dimples at the lower back, lower limb defects, clinodactyly, luxation of the patella, and eye abnormalities.
Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
333393
Concept ID:
C1839736
Disease or Syndrome
Wilson-Turner syndrome is an X-linked recessive neurologic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, hypogonadism, short stature, and truncal obesity. Females are unaffected (Wilson et al., 1991).
46,XY sex reversal 8
MedGen UID:
333416
Concept ID:
C1839840
Disease or Syndrome
Kallmann syndrome with spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
333437
Concept ID:
C1839911
Disease or Syndrome
Kallmann syndrome is a condition characterized by delayed or absent puberty and an impaired sense of smell.This disorder is a form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which is a condition resulting from a lack of production of certain hormones that direct sexual development. These hormones are normally made in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. Males born with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism often have an unusually small penis (micropenis) and undescended testes (cryptorchidism). At puberty, most affected individuals do not develop secondary sex characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair and deepening of the voice in males, the start of monthly periods (menstruation) and breast development in females, and a growth spurt in both sexes. Without treatment, most affected men and women are unable to have biological children (infertile).In Kallmann syndrome, the sense of smell is either diminished (hyposmia) or completely absent (anosmia). This feature distinguishes Kallmann syndrome from most other forms of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which do not affect the sense of smell. Many people with Kallmann syndrome are not aware that they are unable to detect odors until the impairment is discovered through testing.Kallmann syndrome can have a wide variety of additional signs and symptoms. These include a failure of one kidney to develop (unilateral renal agenesis), abnormalities of bones in the fingers or toes, a cleft lip with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate), abnormal eye movements, hearing loss, and abnormalities of tooth development. Some affected individuals have a feature called bimanual synkinesis, in which the movements of one hand are mirrored by the other hand. Bimanual synkinesis can make it difficult to do tasks that require the hands to move separately, such as playing a musical instrument.
IFAP syndrome with or without BRESHECK syndrome
MedGen UID:
327007
Concept ID:
C1839988
Disease or Syndrome
The IFAP/BRESHECK syndrome is an X-linked multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable severity. The classic triad, which defines IFAP, is ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Some patients have additional features, including mental retardation, brain anomalies, Hirschsprung disease, corneal opacifications, kidney dysplasia, cryptorchidism, cleft palate, and skeletal malformations, particularly of the vertebrae, which constitutes BRESHECK syndrome (summary by Naiki et al., 2012).
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome
MedGen UID:
334165
Concept ID:
C1842464
Disease or Syndrome
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) is a rare entity defined by distinctive facial features, including blepharophimosis, tight-appearing glistening facial skin, an abnormal hair pattern with an upswept frontal hairline, sparse arched eyebrows, flat and broad nose, long philtrum, distinctive ears, and a happy demeanor (summary by Jain et al., 2010).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1J
MedGen UID:
334113
Concept ID:
C1842572
Like all CDGs, which are caused by a shortage of precursor monosaccharide phosphate or deficiencies in the glycosyltransferases required for lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor (LLO) synthesis, CDG Ij is caused by a defect in the formation of DPAGT1, the first dolichyl-linked intermediate of the protein N-glycosylation pathway. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
1p36 deletion syndrome is characterized by typical craniofacial features consisting of straight eyebrows, deeply set eyes, midface retrusion, wide and depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, pointed chin, large, late-closing anterior fontanel (77%), microbrachycephaly (65%), epicanthal folds (50%), and posteriorly rotated, low-set, abnormal ears. Other characteristic findings include brachy/camptodactyly and short feet. Developmental delay/intellectual disability of variable degree are present in all, and hypotonia in 95%. Seizures occur in 44%-58% of affected individuals. Other findings include structural brain abnormalities (88%), congenital heart defects (71%), eye/vision problems (52%), hearing loss (47%), skeletal anomalies (41%), abnormalities of the external genitalia (25%), and renal abnormalities (22%).
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia
MedGen UID:
334671
Concept ID:
C1843042
Disease or Syndrome
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, late-closing fontanels, cataract, and skeletal defects (summary by Boyadjiev et al., 2011).
Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type II
MedGen UID:
337064
Concept ID:
C1844696
Congenital Abnormality
The otopalatodigital (OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type I (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type II (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience progression of skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. Prenatal lethality is most common in males with MNS. TODPD is a female limited condition, characterized by terminal skeletal dysplasia, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Catel Manzke syndrome
MedGen UID:
375536
Concept ID:
C1844887
Disease or Syndrome
Catel-Manzke syndrome is characterized by the Pierre Robin anomaly, which comprises cleft palate, glossoptosis, and micrognathia, and a unique form of bilateral hyperphalangy in which there is an accessory bone inserted between the second metacarpal and its corresponding proximal phalanx, resulting in radial deviation of the index finger (summary by Manzke et al., 2008).
Branchial arch syndrome X-linked
MedGen UID:
375543
Concept ID:
C1844918
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare multiple congenital abnormality syndrome that has characteristics of microcephaly, malar hypoplasia with downslanting palpebral fissures, highly arched palate, apparently low-set and protruding ears, micrognathia, short stature, bilateral hearing loss, and learning disability. Occasionally, additional features have been observed such as bilateral cryptorchidism, cardiac valvular lesions, body asymmetry, and pectus excavatum.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, distal, X-linked
MedGen UID:
337123
Concept ID:
C1844934
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy (XL-SMA) is characterized by congenital hypotonia and areflexia and evidence of degeneration and loss of anterior horn cells (i.e., lower motor neurons) in the spinal cord and brain stem. Often congenital contractures and/or fractures are present. Intellect is normal. Life span is shortened because of progressive ventilatory insufficiency resulting from chest muscle involvement.
ATR-X syndrome
MedGen UID:
337145
Concept ID:
C1845055
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATRX) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, severe developmental delays, hypotonia, intellectual disability, and mild-to-moderate anemia secondary to alpha-thalassemia. Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short nose, tented vermilion of the upper lip, and thick or everted vermilion of the lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. Although all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies range from hypospadias and undescended testicles to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Global developmental delays are evident in infancy and some affected individuals never walk independently or develop significant speech.
Hartsfield syndrome
MedGen UID:
335111
Concept ID:
C1845146
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a structural anomaly of the brain in which there is failed or incomplete separation of the forebrain early in gestation. Classic HPE encompasses a continuum of brain malformations including (in order of decreasing severity): alobar, semilobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV) type HPE; a septopreoptic type has also been described. Other CNS abnormalities not specific to HPE may also occur. HPE is accompanied by a spectrum of characteristic craniofacial anomalies in approximately 80% of individuals with HPE. Developmental delay is present in virtually all individuals with the HPE spectrum of CNS anomalies. Seizures and pituitary dysfunction are common. Most affected fetuses do not survive; severely affected children typically do not survive beyond early infancy, while a significant proportion of more mildly affected children survive past 12 months. Mildly manifesting individuals without appreciable brain anomalies on conventional neuroimaging may be described as having “microform” HPE.
Mental retardation, syndromic, Claes-Jensen type, X-linked
MedGen UID:
335139
Concept ID:
C1845243
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic, martin-probst type
MedGen UID:
375620
Concept ID:
C1845285
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation X-linked with cerebellar hypoplasia and distinctive facial appearance
MedGen UID:
336920
Concept ID:
C1845366
Disease or Syndrome
Syndromic X-linked mental retardation, Cabezas type
MedGen UID:
337334
Concept ID:
C1845861
Disease or Syndrome
This form of syndromic X-linked mental retardation is characterized primarily by short stature, hypogonadism, and abnormal gait, with other more variable features such as speech delay, prominent lower lip, and tremor (Cabezas et al., 2000).
Intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies
MedGen UID:
337364
Concept ID:
C1846009
Disease or Syndrome
IMAGe syndrome is an acronym for the major findings of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genitourinary abnormalities (in males). Findings reported in individuals with a clinical and/or molecular diagnosis include: IUGR; Some type of skeletal abnormality (most commonly delayed bone age and short stature and, occasionally, metaphyseal and epiphyseal dysplasia of varying severity); Adrenal insufficiency often presenting in the first month of life as an adrenal crisis or rarely later in childhood with failure to thrive and recurrent vomiting; Genital abnormalities in males (cryptorchidism, micropenis, and hypospadias) but not in females. Hypotonia and developmental delay are reported in some; cognitive outcome appears to be normal in the majority.
MECP2 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
337496
Concept ID:
C1846058
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals) and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and related clinical findings, often associated with concomitant X-chromosomal abnormalities that prevent inactivation of the duplicated region. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are most often observed; atonic seizures and absence seizures have also been described. One third of affected males are never able to walk independently. Almost 50% of affected males die before age 25 years, presumably from complications of recurrent infection and/or neurologic deterioration. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors and gastrointestinal dysfunction have been observed in several affected boys. Although interfamilial phenotypic variability is observed, severity is usually consistent within families.
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Lenz microphthalmia syndrome (LMS) is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or clinical anophthalmia with malformations of the ears, teeth, fingers, skeleton, and/or genitourinary system. Microphthalmia is often accompanied by microcornea and glaucoma. Coloboma is present in approximately 60% of microphthalmic eyes with severity ranging from isolated iris coloboma to coloboma of the ciliary body, choroid, and optic disk. Ears may be low set, anteverted, posteriorly rotated, simple, cup shaped, or abnormally modeled. Hearing loss has been observed. Dental findings include irregularly shaped, missing, or widely spaced teeth. Duplicated thumbs, syndactyly, clinodactyly, camptodactyly, and microcephaly are common, as are narrow/sloping shoulders, underdeveloped clavicles, kyphoscoliosis, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, long cylindric thorax, and webbed neck. Genitourinary anomalies include hypospadias, cryptorchidism, renal hypoplasia/aplasia, and hydroureter. Approximately 60% of affected males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability or developmental delay.
Cree mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
335673
Concept ID:
C1847361
Disease or Syndrome
Ulna and fibula absence of with severe limb deficiency
MedGen UID:
336388
Concept ID:
C1848651
Disease or Syndrome
The Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome (AARRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe malformations of upper and lower limbs with severely hypoplastic pelvis and abnormal genitalia. The disorder is believed to represent a defect of dorsoventral patterning and outgrowth of limbs (summary by Kantaputra et al., 2010).
Trichomegaly with mental retardation, dwarfism and pigmentary degeneration of retina
MedGen UID:
338532
Concept ID:
C1848745
Disease or Syndrome
PNPLA6-related disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia, upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes, chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics), either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting), hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia), short stature, and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children and deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia).
Thumb, hypoplastic, with choroid coloboma, poorly developed antihelix, and deafness
MedGen UID:
376448
Concept ID:
C1848816
Disease or Syndrome
Robinow syndrome, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
341431
Concept ID:
C1849334
Disease or Syndrome
ROR2-related Robinow syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, and other anomalies. Craniofacial features include macrocephaly, broad prominent forehead, low-set ears, ocular hypertelorism, prominent eyes, midface hypoplasia, short upturned nose with depressed nasal bridge and flared nostrils, large and triangular mouth with exposed incisors and upper gums, gum hypertrophy, misaligned teeth, ankyloglossia, and micrognathia. Skeletal abnormalities include short stature with growth retardation, mesomelic or acromesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae with fusion of thoracic vertebrae, and brachydactyly. Other common features include micropenis with or without cryptorchidism in males and reduced clitoral size and hypoplasia of the labia majora in females, renal tract abnormalities, and nail hypoplasia or dystrophy. The disorder is recognizable at birth or in early childhood.
Renal dysplasia - limb defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
376585
Concept ID:
C1849438
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of renal dysplasia, growth retardation, phocomelia or mesomelia, radiohumeral fusion, rib abnormalities, anomalies of the external genitalia and a potter-like facies. The syndrome has been described in three infants, all of whom died shortly after birth from respiratory distress resulting from pulmonary hypoplasia and oligohydramnios caused by renal dysplasia. The mode of transmission appears to be autosomal recessive.
Pseudotrisomy 13 syndrome
MedGen UID:
340382
Concept ID:
C1849649
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a structural anomaly of the brain in which there is failed or incomplete separation of the forebrain early in gestation. Classic HPE encompasses a continuum of brain malformations including (in order of decreasing severity): alobar, semilobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV) type HPE; a septopreoptic type has also been described. Other CNS abnormalities not specific to HPE may also occur. HPE is accompanied by a spectrum of characteristic craniofacial anomalies in approximately 80% of individuals with HPE. Developmental delay is present in virtually all individuals with the HPE spectrum of CNS anomalies. Seizures and pituitary dysfunction are common. Most affected fetuses do not survive; severely affected children typically do not survive beyond early infancy, while a significant proportion of more mildly affected children survive past 12 months. Mildly manifesting individuals without appreciable brain anomalies on conventional neuroimaging may be described as having “microform” HPE.
Omodysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
340513
Concept ID:
C1850318
Disease or Syndrome
Omodysplasia-1 (OMOD1) is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe congenital micromelia with shortening and distal tapering of the humeri and femora to give a club-like appearance. Typical facial features include a prominent forehead, frontal bossing, short nose with a depressed broad bridge, short columella, anteverted nostrils, long philtrum, and small chin. Variable findings are cryptorchidism, hernias, congenital heart defects, and cognitive delay (Elcioglu et al., 2004; Albano et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Omodysplasia In an autosomal dominant form of omodysplasia (OMOD2; 164745), abnormalities are limited to the upper limbs. The facial changes and typical growth defect of the distal humerus with complex deformity of the elbows appear to be similar in both entities (Baxova et al., 1994).
Omphalocele exstrophy imperforate anus
MedGen UID:
338020
Concept ID:
C1850321
Disease or Syndrome
A rare combination of congenital abnormalities that includes omphalocele, cloacal exstrophy, imperforate anus, and spine abnormalities.
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome
MedGen UID:
338026
Concept ID:
C1850343
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a rare disorder in which some cells in the body have an abnormal number of chromosomes instead of the usual 46 chromosomes, a situation known as aneuploidy. Most commonly, cells have an extra chromosome, which is called trisomy, or are missing a chromosome, which is known as monosomy. In MVA syndrome, some cells are aneuploid and others have the normal number of chromosomes, which is a phenomenon known as mosaicism. Typically, at least one-quarter of cells in affected individuals have an abnormal number of chromosomes. Because the additional or missing chromosomes vary among the abnormal cells, the aneuploidy is described as variegated.In MVA syndrome, growth before birth is slow (intrauterine growth restriction). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate and are shorter than average. In addition, they typically have an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Another common feature of MVA syndrome is an increased risk of developing cancer in childhood. Cancers that occur most frequently in affected individuals include a cancer of muscle tissue called rhabdomyosarcoma, a form of kidney cancer known as Wilms tumor, and a cancer of the blood-forming tissue known as leukemia.Less commonly, people with MVA syndrome have eye abnormalities or distinctive facial features, such as a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears. Some affected individuals have brain abnormalities, the most common of which is called Dandy-Walker malformation. Intellectual disability, seizures, and other health problems can also occur in people with MVA syndrome.There are at least three types of MVA syndrome, each with a different genetic cause. Type 1 is the most common and displays the classic signs and symptoms described above. Type 2 appears to have slightly different signs and symptoms than type 1, although the small number of affected individuals makes it difficult to define its characteristic features. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 grow slowly before and after birth; however, their head size is typically normal. Some people with MVA syndrome type 2 have unusually short arms. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 do not seem to have an increased risk of cancer. Another form of MVA syndrome is characterized by a high risk of developing Wilms tumor. Individuals with this form may also have other signs and symptoms typical of MVA syndrome type 1.
Native American myopathy
MedGen UID:
340586
Concept ID:
C1850625
Disease or Syndrome
Native American myopathy (NAM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital weakness and arthrogryposis, cleft palate, ptosis, myopathic facies, short stature, kyphoscoliosis, talipes deformities, and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia provoked by anesthesia. It was first reported in the Lumbee Indian tribe in North Carolina (summary by Stamm et al., 2008).
Lehman syndrome
MedGen UID:
342070
Concept ID:
C1851710
Disease or Syndrome
Lateral meningocele syndrome (LMS) is characterized by multiple lateral spinal meningoceles (protrusions of the arachnoid and dura through spinal foramina), distinctive facial features, joint hyperextensibility, hypotonia, and skeletal, cardiac, and urogenital anomalies. Neurologic sequelae of the meningoceles depend on size and location and can include neurogenic bladder, paresthesias, back pain, and/or paraparesis. Other neurologic findings can include Chiari I malformation, syringomyelia, and rarely, hydrocephalus. Additional findings of LMS include mixed or conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. Skeletal abnormalities may include scoliosis, vertebral fusion, scalloping of vertebrae, and wormian bones. Although developmental delay is common, cognition is often preserved. Feeding difficulties and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are common.
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
343663
Concept ID:
C1851841
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
339908
Concept ID:
C1853120
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Holoprosencephaly, recurrent infections, and monocytosis
MedGen UID:
343987
Concept ID:
C1853187
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a structural anomaly of the brain in which there is failed or incomplete separation of the forebrain early in gestation. Classic HPE encompasses a continuum of brain malformations including (in order of decreasing severity): alobar, semilobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV) type HPE; a septopreoptic type has also been described. Other CNS abnormalities not specific to HPE may also occur. HPE is accompanied by a spectrum of characteristic craniofacial anomalies in approximately 80% of individuals with HPE. Developmental delay is present in virtually all individuals with the HPE spectrum of CNS anomalies. Seizures and pituitary dysfunction are common. Most affected fetuses do not survive; severely affected children typically do not survive beyond early infancy, while a significant proportion of more mildly affected children survive past 12 months. Mildly manifesting individuals without appreciable brain anomalies on conventional neuroimaging may be described as having “microform” HPE.
Genitopatellar syndrome
MedGen UID:
381208
Concept ID:
C1853566
Disease or Syndrome
KAT6B-related disorders include genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker variant of Ohdo syndrome (Ohdo syndrome, SBBYS variant, or SBBYSS [Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome]). Both phenotypes are characterized by significant global developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, genital abnormalities in males (cryptorchidism), and patellar hypoplasia/agenesis. Congenital heart defects, dental anomalies, hearing loss, and thyroid anomalies are common to both phenotypes. Also observed in GPS are flexion contractures of the hips and knees, club feet, agenesis of the corpus callosum with microcephaly, and hydronephrosis and/or multiple renal cysts. In SBBYS lower extremity joint stiffness, long thumbs/great toes, immobile mask-like face, blepharophimosis/ptosis, and lacrimal duct anomalies are observed.
Fryns-Aftimos syndrome
MedGen UID:
340016
Concept ID:
C1853623
Disease or Syndrome
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type IV
MedGen UID:
344425
Concept ID:
C1855126
Disease or Syndrome
The category of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type IV (MGCA4) represents a heterogeneous unclassified group of patients who share mild or intermittent urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid. MGCA excretion is a nonspecific finding observed in many other disorders caused by defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism (Gunay-Aygun, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA1 (250950)
Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
340943
Concept ID:
C1855722
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability (ID) that ranges from mild (usually in those with normal brain structure) to profound (typically in those with a neuronal migration defect). Many (but not all) affected individuals have iris or retinal coloboma, sensorineural deafness, and muscle wasting resulting in a peculiar stance with kyphosis, anteverted shoulders, and slightly flexed elbows and knees. Seizures, congenital heart defects, and renal malformations also are common.
Hypoparathyroidism retardation dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
340984
Concept ID:
C1855840
Disease or Syndrome
HRDS is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, infantile-onset hypoparathyroidism that can result in severe hypocalcemic seizures, dysmorphic facial features, and developmental delay (summary by Padidela et al., 2009 and Ratbi et al., 2015).
Mowat-Wilson syndrome
MedGen UID:
341067
Concept ID:
C1856113
Disease or Syndrome
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by the following: Distinctive facial features. Structural anomalies including: Hirschsprung disease. Genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males). Congenital heart defects (particularly abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves). Agenesis or hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. Eye defects (microphthalmia and Axenfeld anomaly). Functional differences including: Moderate to severe intellectual disability. Severe speech impairment with relative preservation of receptive language. Seizures. Growth retardation with microcephaly. Chronic constipation in those without Hirschsprung disease.
Urioste Martinez-Frias syndrome
MedGen UID:
343489
Concept ID:
C1856159
Disease or Syndrome
Faciodigitogenital syndrome, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
341637
Concept ID:
C1856871
Disease or Syndrome
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 12 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
347328
Concept ID:
C1856897
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Dysmyelination with jaundice
MedGen UID:
346526
Concept ID:
C1857143
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis-mental retardation syndrome of Lin and Gettig
MedGen UID:
341781
Concept ID:
C1857473
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiocranial syndrome
MedGen UID:
346598
Concept ID:
C1857495
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare disorder found in less than ten patients worldwide with characteristics of congenital heart defect, sagittal craniosynostosis and severe developmental delay. Genital and renal anomalies, and various dysmorphic features may be present. Joint and palpebral abnormalities may also occur. The occurrence of the syndrome in a brother-sister sibship supports the hypothesis of autosomal recessive inheritance. Autosomal dominant inheritance and submicroscopic deletions have also been proposed as possible causes.
Craniofacial dyssynostosis
MedGen UID:
347473
Concept ID:
C1857511
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis Varon syndrome
MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis-Varon syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013).
Kallmann syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
387893
Concept ID:
C1857720
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type V
MedGen UID:
347542
Concept ID:
C1857776
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type V is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of dilated or noncompaction cardiomyopathy in infancy or early childhood. Many patients die of cardiac failure. Other features include microcytic anemia, growth retardation, mild ataxia, mild muscle weakness, genital anomalies in males, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid. Some patients may have optic atrophy or delayed psychomotor development (summary by Davey et al., 2006 and Ojala et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347666
Concept ID:
C1858562
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (subjective hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, and hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring and alopecia, hypospadias, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 2a (zellweger)
MedGen UID:
347830
Concept ID:
C1859228
Disease or Syndrome
The peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 2 (CG2) have mutations in the PEX5 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1
MedGen UID:
347149
Concept ID:
C1859452
Congenital Abnormality
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, microcephaly, and neurologic abnormalities, including mental retardation, brain malformations, and ocular/auditory sensory deficits. Patients often die in early childhood (summary by Pierce and Morse, 2012).
Bird headed dwarfism Montreal type
MedGen UID:
347890
Concept ID:
C1859468
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia syndromic 3
MedGen UID:
347232
Concept ID:
C1859773
Disease or Syndrome
SOX2-related eye disorders are characterized by anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia that is usually bilateral, severe, and apparent at birth or by prenatal ultrasound examination. Other common findings include brain malformations, esophageal atresia, cryptorchidism and/or micropenis in males, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and/or pituitary hypoplasia. Postnatal growth failure, delayed motor development, and learning disability are common.
Adrenal hypoplasia, congenital, with absent pituitary luteinizing hormone
MedGen UID:
348510
Concept ID:
C1859978
Disease or Syndrome
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
348008
Concept ID:
C1860042
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Sternum, premature obliteration of sutures of
MedGen UID:
396144
Concept ID:
C1861485
Congenital Abnormality
Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis
MedGen UID:
350933
Concept ID:
C1863616
Disease or Syndrome
Verloes et al. (1992) described a rare variant of frontonasal dysplasia (see FND1, 136760), designated acromelic frontonasal dysplasia (AFND), in which similar craniofacial anomalies are associated with variable central nervous system malformations and limb defects including tibial hypoplasia/aplasia, talipes equinovarus, and preaxial polydactyly of the feet.
Microphthalmia syndromic 6
MedGen UID:
355268
Concept ID:
C1864689
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma comprise the MAC spectrum of ocular malformations. Microphthalmia refers to a globe with a total axial length that is at least two standard deviations below the mean for age. Anophthalmia refers to complete absence of the globe in the presence of ocular adnexa (eyelids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus). Coloboma refers to the ocular malformations that result from failure of closure of the optic fissure. Chorioretinal coloboma refers to coloboma of the retina and choroid. Iris coloboma causes the iris to appear keyhole-shaped. Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma may be unilateral or bilateral; when bilateral they may occur in any combination.
Microphthalmia syndromic 5
MedGen UID:
350491
Concept ID:
C1864690
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma comprise the MAC spectrum of ocular malformations. Microphthalmia refers to a globe with a total axial length that is at least two standard deviations below the mean for age. Anophthalmia refers to complete absence of the globe in the presence of ocular adnexa (eyelids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus). Coloboma refers to the ocular malformations that result from failure of closure of the optic fissure. Chorioretinal coloboma refers to coloboma of the retina and choroid. Iris coloboma causes the iris to appear keyhole-shaped. Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma may be unilateral or bilateral; when bilateral they may occur in any combination.
Koolen-de Vries syndrome
MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
The KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Global psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with the KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome function in the mild to moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include epilepsy (55%), congenital heart defects (39%), renal and urologic anomalies (37%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative.
Brachyphalangy, polydactyly, and tibial aplasia/hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355340
Concept ID:
C1864965
Disease or Syndrome
Skeletal dysplasia and progressive central nervous system degeneration, lethal
MedGen UID:
400685
Concept ID:
C1865117
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, auditory canal atresia, mandibular hypoplasia, and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
355971
Concept ID:
C1865361
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, auditory canal atresia, mandibular hypoplasia, and skeletal abnormalities (SAMS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with features of a first and second branchial arch syndrome. Craniofacial abnormalities can lead to conductive hearing loss, respiratory insufficiency, and feeding difficulties. Additional features include rhizomelic skeletal anomalies as well as abnormalities of the shoulder and pelvic joints. Affected individuals may also have some features of a neurocristopathy or abnormal mesoderm development, such as urogenital anomalies, that are distinct from other branchial arch syndromes (summary by Parry et al., 2013).
Otofacioosseous-gonadal syndrome
MedGen UID:
356416
Concept ID:
C1865988
Disease or Syndrome
Coloboma-obesity-hypogenitalism-mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
400954
Concept ID:
C1866256
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type
MedGen UID:
356497
Concept ID:
C1866294
Disease or Syndrome
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of heritable connective tissue disorders that share the common features of skin hyperextensibility, articular hypermobility, and tissue fragility (Beighton et al., 1998). The major characteristics of the musculocontractural form of EDS include distinctive craniofacial dysmorphism, congenital contractures of thumbs and fingers, clubfeet, severe kyphoscoliosis, muscular hypotonia, hyperextensible thin skin with easy bruisability and atrophic scarring, wrinkled palms, joint hypermobility, and ocular involvement (summary by Malfait et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome musculocontractural type 2 (EDSMC2; 615539) is caused by mutation in the DSE gene (605942) on chromosome 6q22.
Meier-Gorlin syndrome
MedGen UID:
401501
Concept ID:
C1868684
Disease or Syndrome
Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a condition primarily characterized by short stature. It is considered a form of primordial dwarfism because the growth problems begin before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate. Other characteristic features of this condition are underdeveloped or missing kneecaps (patellae), small ears, and, often, an abnormally small head (microcephaly). Despite a small head size, most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have normal intellect.Some people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have other skeletal abnormalities, such as unusually narrow long bones in the arms and legs, a deformity of the knee joint that allows the knee to bend backwards (genu recurvatum), and slowed mineralization of bones (delayed bone age).Most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have distinctive facial features. In addition to being abnormally small, the ears may be low-set or rotated backward. Additional features can include a small mouth (microstomia), an underdeveloped lower jaw (micrognathia), full lips, and a narrow nose with a high nasal bridge.Abnormalities in sexual development may also occur in Meier-Gorlin syndrome. In some males with this condition, the testes are small or undescended (cryptorchidism). Affected females may have unusually small external genital folds (hypoplasia of the labia majora) and small breasts. Both males and females with this condition can have sparse or absent underarm (axillary) hair.Additional features of Meier-Gorlin syndrome can include difficulty feeding and a lung condition known as pulmonary emphysema or other breathing problems.
4p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
408255
Concept ID:
C1956097
Disease or Syndrome
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features in infancy consisting of ‘Greek warrior helmet’ appearance of the nose (wide bridge of the nose continuing to the forehead), microcephaly, high anterior hairline with prominent glabella, widely spaced eyes, epicanthus, highly arched eyebrows, short philtrum, downturned corners of the mouth, micrognathia, and poorly formed ears with pits/tags. All affected individuals have prenatal-onset growth deficiency followed by postnatal growth retardation and hypotonia with muscle underdevelopment. Developmental delay/intellectual disability of variable degree is present in all. Seizures occur in 90% to 100% of children with WHS. Other findings include skeletal anomalies (60%-70%), congenital heart defects (~50%), hearing loss (mostly conductive) (>40%), urinary tract malformations (25%), and structural brain abnormalities (33%).
Hamamy syndrome
MedGen UID:
370148
Concept ID:
C1970027
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome
MedGen UID:
370910
Concept ID:
C1970431
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is characterized by distinctive facial features which become more apparent with age (100%), developmental delay/intellectual disability (100%), and episodic hyperventilation and/or breath-holding while awake (55%-60%). Global developmental delays are significant and intellectual disability is moderate to severe: mean age of walking is four to six years; most affected individuals are nonverbal. Other common findings are behavioral issues, hand stereotypic movements, seizures (40%-50%), constipation, and severe myopia.
Mental retardation, X-linked 93
MedGen UID:
410164
Concept ID:
C1970841
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 10q26 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436306
Concept ID:
C2674937
Disease or Syndrome
Endocrine-cerebroosteodysplasia
MedGen UID:
390740
Concept ID:
C2675227
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 15q26-qter deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390804
Concept ID:
C2675463
Disease or Syndrome
Severe congenital neutropenia 4, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
436454
Concept ID:
C2675526
Disease or Syndrome
G6PC3 deficiency is characterized by severe congenital neutropenia which occurs in a phenotypic continuum that includes the following: Isolated severe congenital neutropenia (nonsyndromic). Classic G6PC3 deficiency (severe congenital neutropenia plus cardiovascular and/or urogenital abnormalities). Severe G6PC3 deficiency (classic G6PC3 deficiency plus involvement of non-myeloid hematopoietic cell lines, additional extra-hematologic features, and pulmonary hypertension; known as Dursun syndrome). Neutropenia usually presents with recurrent bacterial infections in the first few months of life. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), failure to thrive (FTT), and poor postnatal growth are common. Other findings in classic and severe G6PC3 deficiency can include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resembling Crohn’s disease, and endocrine disorders (growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and delayed puberty).
Chromosome 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
382704
Concept ID:
C2675857
Disease or Syndrome
Nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development that also affects the head and face. Normally, the brain divides into two halves (hemispheres) during early development. Holoprosencephaly occurs when the brain fails to divide properly into the right and left hemispheres. This condition is called nonsyndromic to distinguish it from other types of holoprosencephaly caused by genetic syndromes, chromosome abnormalities, or substances that cause birth defects (teratogens). The severity of nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly varies widely among affected individuals, even within the same family.Nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly can be grouped into four types according to the degree of brain division. From most to least severe, the types are known as alobar, semi-lobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV). In the most severe forms of nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly, the brain does not divide at all. These affected individuals have one central eye (cyclopia) and a tubular nasal structure (proboscis) located above the eye. Most babies with severe nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly die before birth or soon after. In the less severe forms, the brain is partially divided and the eyes are usually set close together (hypotelorism). The life expectancy of these affected individuals varies depending on the severity of symptoms.People with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly often have a small head (microcephaly), although they can develop a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus) that causes increased head size (macrocephaly). Other features may include an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) with or without a split in the upper lip (cleft lip), one central front tooth instead of two (a single maxillary central incisor), and a flat nasal bridge. The eyeballs may be abnormally small (microphthalmia) or absent (anophthalmia).Some individuals with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly have a distinctive pattern of facial features, including a narrowing of the head at the temples, outside corners of the eyes that point upward (upslanting palpebral fissures), large ears, a short nose with upturned nostrils, and a broad and deep space between the nose and mouth (philtrum). In general, the severity of facial features is directly related to the severity of the brain abnormalities. However, individuals with mildly affected facial features can have severe brain abnormalities. Some people do not have apparent structural brain abnormalities but have some of the facial features associated with this condition. These individuals are considered to have a form of the disorder known as microform holoprosencephaly and are typically identified after the birth of a severely affected family member.Most people with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly have developmental delay and intellectual disability. Affected individuals also frequently have a malfunctioning pituitary gland, which is a gland located at the base of the brain that produces several hormones. Because pituitary dysfunction leads to the partial or complete absence of these hormones, it can cause a variety of disorders. Most commonly, people with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly and pituitary dysfunction develop diabetes insipidus, a condition that disrupts the balance between fluid intake and urine excretion. Dysfunction in other parts of the brain can cause seizures, feeding difficulties, and problems regulating body temperature, heart rate, and breathing. The sense of smell may be diminished (hyposmia) or completely absent (anosmia) if the part of the brain that processes smells is underdeveloped or missing.
Skeletal defects, genital hypoplasia, and mental retardation
MedGen UID:
382795
Concept ID:
C2676231
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacioskeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
394716
Concept ID:
C2678036
Disease or Syndrome
Nuclearly-encoded mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency 1
MedGen UID:
398105
Concept ID:
C2700431
Disease or Syndrome
A distinct group of inborn defects of complex V (ATP synthase) is represented by the enzyme deficiency due to nuclear genome mutations characterized by a selective inhibition of ATP synthase biogenesis. Biochemically, the patients show a generalized decrease in the content of ATP synthase complex which is less than 30% of normal. Most cases present with neonatal-onset hypotonia, lactic acidosis, hyperammonemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Many patients die within a few months or years (summary by Mayr et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex V Deficiency Other nuclear types of mitochondrial complex V deficiency include MC5DN2 (614052), caused by mutation in the TMEM70 gene (612418) on chromosome 8q21; MC5DN3 (614053), caused by mutation in the ATP5E gene (606153) on chromosome 20q13; and MC5DN4 (615228), caused by mutation in the ATP5A1 gene (164360) on chromosome 18q. Mutations in the mitochondrial-encoded MTATP6 (516060) and MTATP8 (516070) genes can also cause mitochondrial complex V deficiency (see, e.g., 551500 and 500003).
Tetraamelia with ectodermal dysplasia and lacrimal duct abnormalities
MedGen UID:
413568
Concept ID:
C2749282
Omodysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
413823
Concept ID:
C2750355
Disease or Syndrome
Omodysplasia-2 (OMOD2) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by shortened humeri, shortened first metacarpal, and craniofacial dysmorphism. See also OMOD1 (258315).
Waardenburg syndrome type 4C
MedGen UID:
413310
Concept ID:
C2750452
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, deafness, and Hirschsprung disease (review by Read and Newton, 1997). WS type 4C is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229). WS type 4 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS4A; 277580). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS2 (193510), and WS3 (148820).
Noonan syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
413028
Concept ID:
C2750732
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Macrocephaly, alopecia, cutis laxa, and scoliosis
MedGen UID:
416526
Concept ID:
C2751321
Disease or Syndrome
Bifid nose, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
414016
Concept ID:
C2751431
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
414432
Concept ID:
C2751651
Disease or Syndrome
Distal chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor overall growth, slender habitus, microcephaly, delayed development, intellectual disability with poor or absent speech, and feeding difficulties. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, signs of ectodermal dysplasia, hand and foot anomalies, and genitourinary anomalies, particularly in males (summary by Chowdhury et al., 2014).
Microcephaly, growth retardation, cataract, hearing loss, and unusual appearance
MedGen UID:
416652
Concept ID:
C2751870
Disease or Syndrome
Growth retardation, developmental delay, coarse facies, and early death
MedGen UID:
414158
Concept ID:
C2752001
Congenital Abnormality
Growth retardation, developmental delay, and facial dysmorphism (GDFD) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, poor overall growth, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include cardiac malformations and deafness (summary by Daoud et al., 2016).
Kallmann syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
419286
Concept ID:
C2930927
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita
MedGen UID:
419371
Concept ID:
C2931264
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by congenital nonprogressive joint contractures, with a worldwide incidence of 1 in 3,000 live births. AMC can occur in the upper or lower limbs and/or the vertebral column, leading to various degrees of flexion or extension limitations evident at birth (summary by Markus et al., 2012). There is also a distal form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (see DA1A, 108120) and a lethal congenital form (see LCCS1, 253310).
Chromosome 3pter-p25 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
419050
Concept ID:
C2931337
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
Characteristic features of the distal 3p- syndrome include low birth weight, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, hypotonia, psychomotor and growth retardation, ptosis, telecanthus, downslanting palpebral fissures, and micrognathia. Postaxial polydactyly, renal anomalies, cleft palate, congenital heart defects (especially atrioventricular septal defects), preauricular pits, sacral dimple, and gastrointestinal anomalies are variable features. Although intellectual deficits are almost invariably associated with cytogenetically visible 3p deletions, rare patients with a 3p26-p25 deletion and normal intelligence or only mild abnormalities have been described (summary by Shuib et al., 2009).
Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome
MedGen UID:
419089
Concept ID:
C2931482
Disease or Syndrome
A variant of neurofibromatosis type 1 characterised by the combination of features of neurofibromatosis type 1, such as café-au-lait spots, iris Lisch nodules, axillary and inguinal freckling, optic nerve glioma and multiple neurofibromas; and Noonan syndrome, with features such as short stature, typical facial features, congenital heart defects and unusual pectus deformity.
N syndrome
MedGen UID:
424834
Concept ID:
C2936859
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
423627
Concept ID:
C2936864
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Aarskog syndrome, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
460570
Concept ID:
C3149220
Disease or Syndrome
Aarskog syndrome is characterized by short stature and facial, limb, and genital anomalies. One form of the disorder is X-linked (see 305400), but there is also evidence for autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive (227330) inheritance (summary by Grier et al., 1983).
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with mental retardation, type B2
MedGen UID:
461766
Concept ID:
C3150416
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGB2 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy associated with mental retardation and mild structural brain abnormalities (Yanagisawa et al., 2007). It is part of a group of similar disorders, collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies,' resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239) (Godfrey et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155).
Fanconi anemia, complementation group O
MedGen UID:
462003
Concept ID:
C3150653
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Witteveen-kolk syndrome
MedGen UID:
462024
Concept ID:
C3150674
Disease or Syndrome
The 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay; mild to severe (usually at least moderate) intellectual disability; facial dysmorphisms; congenital malformations of the hands and feet, eye, and genitalia; joint laxity; and growth retardation and failure to thrive. Less common findings include: seizures; conductive and sensorineural hearing loss; hypospadias and/ or micropenis. Males and females are affected equally.
Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462057
Concept ID:
C3150707
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with or without juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia
MedGen UID:
462153
Concept ID:
C3150803
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder is a developmental disorder resembling Noonan syndrome (NS1; 163950) and characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, and ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies. There is extensive phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity (summary by Martinelli et al., 2010). Patients with heterozygous germline CBL mutations have an increased risk for certain malignancies, particularly juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML; 607785), as also seen in patients with Noonan syndrome (summary by Niemeyer et al., 2010).
Hemorrhagic destruction of the brain, subependymal calcification, and cataracts
MedGen UID:
462350
Concept ID:
C3151000
Disease or Syndrome
HDBSCC is an autosomal recessive disorder with a distinctive phenotype comprising hemorrhagic destruction of the brain, subependymal calcification, and congenital cataracts. Affected individuals have a catastrophic neurologic clinical course resulting in death in infancy (summary by Akawi et al., 2013).
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
462463
Concept ID:
C3151113
Disease or Syndrome
Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a condition primarily characterized by short stature. It is considered a form of primordial dwarfism because the growth problems begin before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate. Other characteristic features of this condition are underdeveloped or missing kneecaps (patellae), small ears, and, often, an abnormally small head (microcephaly). Despite a small head size, most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have normal intellect.Some people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have other skeletal abnormalities, such as unusually narrow long bones in the arms and legs, a deformity of the knee joint that allows the knee to bend backwards (genu recurvatum), and slowed mineralization of bones (delayed bone age).Most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have distinctive facial features. In addition to being abnormally small, the ears may be low-set or rotated backward. Additional features can include a small mouth (microstomia), an underdeveloped lower jaw (micrognathia), full lips, and a narrow nose with a high nasal bridge.Abnormalities in sexual development may also occur in Meier-Gorlin syndrome. In some males with this condition, the testes are small or undescended (cryptorchidism). Affected females may have unusually small external genital folds (hypoplasia of the labia majora) and small breasts. Both males and females with this condition can have sparse or absent underarm (axillary) hair.Additional features of Meier-Gorlin syndrome can include difficulty feeding and a lung condition known as pulmonary emphysema or other breathing problems.
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
462470
Concept ID:
C3151120
Disease or Syndrome
Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a condition primarily characterized by short stature. It is considered a form of primordial dwarfism because the growth problems begin before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate. Other characteristic features of this condition are underdeveloped or missing kneecaps (patellae), small ears, and, often, an abnormally small head (microcephaly). Despite a small head size, most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have normal intellect.Some people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have other skeletal abnormalities, such as unusually narrow long bones in the arms and legs, a deformity of the knee joint that allows the knee to bend backwards (genu recurvatum), and slowed mineralization of bones (delayed bone age).Most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have distinctive facial features. In addition to being abnormally small, the ears may be low-set or rotated backward. Additional features can include a small mouth (microstomia), an underdeveloped lower jaw (micrognathia), full lips, and a narrow nose with a high nasal bridge.Abnormalities in sexual development may also occur in Meier-Gorlin syndrome. In some males with this condition, the testes are small or undescended (cryptorchidism). Affected females may have unusually small external genital folds (hypoplasia of the labia majora) and small breasts. Both males and females with this condition can have sparse or absent underarm (axillary) hair.Additional features of Meier-Gorlin syndrome can include difficulty feeding and a lung condition known as pulmonary emphysema or other breathing problems.
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
462476
Concept ID:
C3151126
Disease or Syndrome
Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a condition primarily characterized by short stature. It is considered a form of primordial dwarfism because the growth problems begin before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate. Other characteristic features of this condition are underdeveloped or missing kneecaps (patellae), small ears, and, often, an abnormally small head (microcephaly). Despite a small head size, most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have normal intellect.Some people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have other skeletal abnormalities, such as unusually narrow long bones in the arms and legs, a deformity of the knee joint that allows the knee to bend backwards (genu recurvatum), and slowed mineralization of bones (delayed bone age).Most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have distinctive facial features. In addition to being abnormally small, the ears may be low-set or rotated backward. Additional features can include a small mouth (microstomia), an underdeveloped lower jaw (micrognathia), full lips, and a narrow nose with a high nasal bridge.Abnormalities in sexual development may also occur in Meier-Gorlin syndrome. In some males with this condition, the testes are small or undescended (cryptorchidism). Affected females may have unusually small external genital folds (hypoplasia of the labia majora) and small breasts. Both males and females with this condition can have sparse or absent underarm (axillary) hair.Additional features of Meier-Gorlin syndrome can include difficulty feeding and a lung condition known as pulmonary emphysema or other breathing problems.
Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome
MedGen UID:
462551
Concept ID:
C3151201
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant, 3
MedGen UID:
462795
Concept ID:
C3151445
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2
MedGen UID:
463627
Concept ID:
C3160738
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group E
MedGen UID:
463628
Concept ID:
C3160739
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
N-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
Ogden syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Most patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015).
Chromosome Xq27.3-q28 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
477152
Concept ID:
C3275521
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome Xq27.3-q28 duplication syndrome is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mild mental retardation, mild facial dysmorphism, short stature, and primary testicular failure manifest as high-pitched voice, sparse body hair, abdominal obesity, and small testes. Female carriers may have short stature and premature ovarian failure (summary by Rio et al., 2010).
Acrodysostosis 1 with or without hormone resistance
MedGen UID:
477858
Concept ID:
C3276228
Disease or Syndrome
Acrodysostosis-1 is a form of skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and nasal hypoplasia. Affected individuals often have advanced bone age and obesity. Laboratory studies show resistance to multiple hormones, including parathyroid, thyrotropin, calcitonin, growth hormone-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin (summary by Linglart et al., 2011). However, not all patients show endocrine abnormalities (Lee et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Acrodysostosis See also ACRDYS2 (614613), caused by mutation in the PDE4D gene (600129) on chromosome 5q12.
Nuclearly-encoded mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency 2
MedGen UID:
481329
Concept ID:
C3279699
Disease or Syndrome
Warburg micro syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481844
Concept ID:
C3280214
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome
MedGen UID:
481870
Concept ID:
C3280240
Disease or Syndrome
MEDS is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by microcephaly, simplified gyral pattern, severe epilepsy, and infantile diabetes (summary by Poulton et al., 2011).
Chromosome 15q25 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
481985
Concept ID:
C3280355
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 3B
MedGen UID:
482429
Concept ID:
C3280799
Disease or Syndrome
De Barsy syndrome, also known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III (ARCL3), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an aged appearance with distinctive facial features, sparse hair, ophthalmologic abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and cutis laxa (summary by Lin et al., 2011). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of de Barsy syndrome, see 219150. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see 219200.
Chromosome 17q12 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
482768
Concept ID:
C3281138
Disease or Syndrome
The 17q12 recurrent deletion syndrome is characterized by variable combinations of the three following findings: structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), and neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, and bipolar disorder). Using a method of data analysis that avoids ascertainment bias, the authors determined that multicystic kidneys and other structural renal anomalies occur in 80% to 85% of affected individuals, MODY5 in approximately 40%, and some degree of developmental delay or learning disability in approximately 50%. MODY5 is most often diagnosed before age 25 years (range: 10 to 50 years).
Fanconi anemia, complementation group C
MedGen UID:
483324
Concept ID:
C3468041
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group A
MedGen UID:
483333
Concept ID:
C3469521
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group P
MedGen UID:
854020
Concept ID:
C3469542
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 14 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
761703
Concept ID:
C3540450
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Acrodysostosis 2, with or without hormone resistance
MedGen UID:
766164
Concept ID:
C3553250
Disease or Syndrome
Acrodysostosis-2 is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and spinal stenosis. Many patients have intellectual disability and some have hormone resistance (summary by Michot et al., 2012 and Lee et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, see ACRDYS1 (101800).
Hypertelorism and other facial dysmorphism, brachydactyly, genital abnormalities, mental retardation, and recurrent inflammatory episodes
MedGen UID:
766379
Concept ID:
C3553465
Disease or Syndrome
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 8 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
766755
Concept ID:
C3553841
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 11 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
766758
Concept ID:
C3553844
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
METHYLMALONIC ACIDURIA AND HOMOCYSTINURIA, cblJ TYPE
MedGen UID:
766829
Concept ID:
C3553915
Disease or Syndrome
Combined methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) and homocystinuria is a genetically heterogeneous metabolic disorder of cobalamin (cbl; vitamin B12) metabolism, which is essential for hematologic and neurologic function. Biochemically, the defect causes decreased levels of the coenzymes adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and methylcobalamin (MeCbl), which results in decreased activity of the respective enzymes methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT; 609058) and methyltetrahydrofolate:homocysteine methyltransferase, also known as methionine synthase (MTR; 156570). CblJ is phenotypically and biochemically similar to cblF (277380) (summary by Coelho et al., 2012).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5a (zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766854
Concept ID:
C3553940
Disease or Syndrome
The peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF) have mutations in the PEX2 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 15 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
766891
Concept ID:
C3553977
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 16 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
766935
Concept ID:
C3554021
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Carpenter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Schuurs-hoeijmakers syndrome
MedGen UID:
767257
Concept ID:
C3554343
Disease or Syndrome
Schuurs-Hoeijmakers syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mental retardation, distinct craniofacial features, and variable additional congenital abnormalities (summary by Schuurs-Hoeijmakers et al., 2016).
Tyshchenko syndrome
MedGen UID:
767688
Concept ID:
C3554774
Disease or Syndrome
Ohdo syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
785805
Concept ID:
C3698541
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of MED12-related disorders, which is still being defined, includes at a minimum the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), and X-linked Ohdo syndrome. FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS) is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. A number of individuals with nonsyndromic intellectual disability – including some affected females – have been described.
Meckel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
811346
Concept ID:
C3714506
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel syndrome, also known as Meckel-Gruber syndrome, is a severe pleiotropic autosomal recessive developmental disorder caused by dysfunction of primary cilia during early embryogenesis. There is extensive clinical variability and controversy as to the minimum diagnostic criteria. Early reports, including that of Opitz and Howe (1969) and Wright et al. (1994), stated that the classic triad of Meckel syndrome comprises (1) cystic renal disease; (2) a central nervous system malformation, most commonly occipital encephalocele; and (3) polydactyly, most often postaxial. However, based on a study of 67 patients, Salonen (1984) concluded that the minimum diagnostic criteria are (1) cystic renal disease; (2) CNS malformation, and (3) hepatic abnormalities, including portal fibrosis or ductal proliferation. In a review of Meckel syndrome, Logan et al. (2011) stated that the classic triad first described by Meckel (1822) included occipital encephalocele, cystic kidneys, and fibrotic changes to the liver. Genetic Heterogeneity of Meckel Syndrome See also MKS2 (603194), caused by mutation in the TMEM216 gene (613277) on chromosome 11q13; MKS3 (607361), caused by mutation in the TMEM67 gene (609884) on chromosome 8q; MKS4 (611134), caused by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on chromosome 12q; MKS5 (611561), caused by mutation in the RPGRIP1L gene (610937) on chromosome 16q12.2; MKS6 (612284), caused by mutation in the CC2D2A gene (612013) on chromosome 4p15; MKS7 (267010), caused by mutation in the NPHP3 (608002) gene on chromosome 3q22; MKS8 (613885), caused by mutation in the TCTN2 gene (613846) on chromosome 12q24.31; MKS9 (614209), caused by mutation in the B9D1 gene (614144) on chromosome 17p11.2; MKS10 (614175), caused by mutation in the B9D2 gene (611951) on chromosome 19q13; MKS11 (615397), caused by mutation in the TMEM231 gene (614949) on chromosome 16q23; MKS12 (616258), caused by mutation in the KIF14 gene (611279) on chromosome 1q31; and MKS13 (617562), caused by mutation in the TMEM107 gene (616183) on chromosome 17p13.
Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
811623
Concept ID:
C3715192
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome (MDPL) is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder characterized by prominent loss of subcutaneous fat, a characteristic facial appearance, and metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Sensorineural deafness occurs late in the first or second decades of life (summary by Weedon et al., 2013).
Noonan syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
815563
Concept ID:
C3809233
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 1
MedGen UID:
815784
Concept ID:
C3809454
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with onset at birth or in early infancy. Affected individuals show very poor, if any, normal cognitive development. Some patients are never learn to sit or walk independently (summary by Al-Sayed et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile Hypotonia with Psychomotor Retardation and Characteristic Facies See also IHPRF2 (616801), caused by mutation in the UNC80 gene (612636) on chromosome 2q34; and IHPRF3 (616900), caused by mutation in the TBCK gene (616899) on chromosome 4q24.
Chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
815820
Concept ID:
C3809490
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome is characterized by marked developmental delay, characteristic facies with a short philtrum and protruding lips, and abnormal male genitalia (Molin et al., 2012). Patients with Primrose syndrome (PRIMS; 259050) exhibit features overlapping those of the chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome but also have ossified ear cartilage, severe muscle wasting, and abnormalities of glucose metabolism resulting in insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in adulthood. Primrose syndrome is caused by mutation in the ZBTB20 gene (606025) on chromosome 3q13.
Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 21
MedGen UID:
816016
Concept ID:
C3809686
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia, syndromic 12
MedGen UID:
816133
Concept ID:
C3809803
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma comprise the MAC spectrum of ocular malformations. Microphthalmia refers to a globe with a total axial length that is at least two standard deviations below the mean for age. Anophthalmia refers to complete absence of the globe in the presence of ocular adnexa (eyelids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus). Coloboma refers to the ocular malformations that result from failure of closure of the optic fissure. Chorioretinal coloboma refers to coloboma of the retina and choroid. Iris coloboma causes the iris to appear keyhole-shaped. Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma may be unilateral or bilateral; when bilateral they may occur in any combination.
Testicular anomalies with or without congenital heart disease
MedGen UID:
816188
Concept ID:
C3809858
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
816205
Concept ID:
C3809875
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Van Maldergem syndrome, see 601390.
Schaaf-yang syndrome
MedGen UID:
816207
Concept ID:
C3809877
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1x
MedGen UID:
816397
Concept ID:
C3810067
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 11 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
816530
Concept ID:
C3810200
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Warburg micro syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
816595
Concept ID:
C3810265
Disease or Syndrome
Warburg Micro syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly, microphthalmia, microcornea, congenital cataracts, optic atrophy, cortical dysplasia, in particular corpus callosum hypoplasia, severe mental retardation, spastic diplegia, and hypogonadism (summary by Morris-Rosendahl et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Warburg Micro syndrome, see 600118.
Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 23
MedGen UID:
816736
Concept ID:
C3810406
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 10
MedGen UID:
862784
Concept ID:
C4014347
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, progressive microcephaly, spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities, including brain atrophy and delayed myelination. Some patients have dysmorphic features and an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (summary by Karaca et al., 2014 and Schaffer et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 7
MedGen UID:
862845
Concept ID:
C4014408
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a genetic condition that can affect several parts of the body, including the brain, kidneys, liver, heart, and the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Signs and symptoms of mitochondrial complex III deficiency usually begin in infancy but can appear later.The severity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency varies widely among affected individuals. People who are mildly affected tend to have muscle weakness (myopathy) and extreme tiredness (fatigue), particularly during exercise (exercise intolerance). More severely affected individuals have problems with multiple body systems, such as liver disease that can lead to liver failure, kidney abnormalities (tubulopathy), and brain dysfunction (encephalopathy). Encephalopathy can cause delayed development of mental and motor skills (psychomotor delay), movement problems, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and difficulty with communication. Some affected individuals have a form of heart disease called cardiomyopathy, which can lead to heart failure. Most people with mitochondrial complex III deficiency have a buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body (lactic acidosis). Some affected individuals also have buildup of molecules called ketones (ketoacidosis) or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). Abnormally high levels of these chemicals in the body can be life-threatening.Mitochondrial complex III deficiency can be fatal in childhood, although individuals with mild signs and symptoms can survive into adolescence or adulthood.
Culler-Jones syndrome
MedGen UID:
862916
Concept ID:
C4014479
Disease or Syndrome
Webb-Dattani syndrome
MedGen UID:
863145
Concept ID:
C4014708
Disease or Syndrome
Webb-Dattani syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by frontotemporal hypoplasia, globally delayed development, and pituitary and hypothalamic insufficiency due to hypoplastic development of these brain regions. Patients present soon after birth with multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies and subsequently develop microcephaly, seizures, and spasticity. Other features include postretinal blindness and renal abnormalities (summary by Webb et al., 2013).
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 22 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
863425
Concept ID:
C4014988
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Temple syndrome
MedGen UID:
863995
Concept ID:
C4015558
Disease or Syndrome
Temple syndrome is a short stature disorder of imprinting. The cardinal features are low birth weight, hypotonia and motor delay, feeding problems early in life, early puberty, and significantly reduced final height. Facial features include a broad forehead and short nose with a wide nasal tip, and the majority of patients have small hands and feet. However, many of the clinical features are nonspecific, making diagnosis difficult. In addition, isodisomy may uncover recessive disorders, which may influence the phenotype in maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (UPD14mat) cases (summary by Ioannides et al., 2014).
RECLASSIFIED - VARIANT OF UNKNOWN SIGNIFICANCE
MedGen UID:
864405
Concept ID:
C4015968
Finding
MEND syndrome
MedGen UID:
905986
Concept ID:
C4085243
Disease or Syndrome
Male EBP disorder with neurologic defects is an X-linked recessive disorder representing a continuous phenotypic spectrum with variable manifestations associated with a defect in sterol biosynthesis. Features include intellectual disability, short stature, scoliosis, digital abnormalities, cataracts, and dermatologic abnormalities. Not all patients show all features, and the severity is highly variable. Molecular studies indicate that affected males are hemizygous for a nonmosaic hypomorphic EBP allele. Carrier females are generally clinically asymptomatic, but may show biochemical abnormalities (summary by Arnold et al., 2012 and Barboza-Cerda et al., 2014).
Chops syndrome
MedGen UID:
894554
Concept ID:
C4085597
Disease or Syndrome
CHOPS syndrome is a disorder involving multiple abnormalities that are present from birth (congenital). The name "CHOPS" is an abbreviation for a list of features of the disorder including cognitive impairment, coarse facial features, heart defects, obesity, lung (pulmonary) involvement, short stature, and skeletal abnormalities.Children with CHOPS syndrome have intellectual disability and delayed development of skills such as sitting and walking. Characteristic facial features include a round face; thick hair; thick eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys); wide-set, bulging eyes with long eyelashes; a short nose; and down-turned corners of the mouth.Most affected individuals are born with a heart defect called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The ductus arteriosus is a connection between two major arteries, the aorta and the pulmonary artery. This connection is open during fetal development and normally closes shortly after birth. However, the ductus arteriosus remains open, or patent, in babies with PDA. If untreated, this heart defect causes infants to breathe rapidly, feed poorly, and gain weight slowly; in severe cases, it can lead to heart failure. Multiple heart abnormalities have sometimes been found in children with CHOPS syndrome. In addition to PDA, affected individuals may have ventricular septal defect, which is a defect in the muscular wall (septum) that separates the right and left sides of the heart's lower chamber.People with CHOPS syndrome have abnormalities of the throat and airways that cause momentary cessation of breathing while asleep (obstructive sleep apnea). These abnormalities can also cause affected individuals to breathe food or fluids into the lungs accidentally, which can lead to a potentially life-threatening bacterial lung infection (aspiration pneumonia) and chronic lung disease. Affected individuals are shorter than more than 97 percent of their peers and are overweight for their height. They also have skeletal differences including unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly) and abnormally-shaped spinal bones (vertebrae).Other features that can occur in CHOPS syndrome include a small head size (microcephaly); hearing loss; clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract); a single, horseshoe-shaped kidney; and, in affected males, undescended testes (cryptorchidism).
Skin creases, congenital symmetric circumferential, 2
MedGen UID:
902880
Concept ID:
C4225225
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital symmetric circumferential skin creases is characterized by the folding of excess skin, which leads to ringed creases, primarily of the limbs. Affected individuals also exhibit intellectual disability, cleft palate, and dysmorphic features (summary by Isrie et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital symmetric circumferential skin creases, see CSCSC1 (156610).
Seizures, scoliosis, and macrocephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
909039
Concept ID:
C4225248
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly 16, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
898705
Concept ID:
C4225249
Disease or Syndrome
AU-KLINE SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
900671
Concept ID:
C4225274
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
902892
Concept ID:
C4225280
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, short and/or webbed neck, cardiac abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and coagulation defects (summary by Yamamoto et al., 2015). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Noonan syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
896352
Concept ID:
C4225282
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, short and/or webbed neck, cardiac abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and coagulation defects (summary by Yamamoto et al., 2015). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction
MedGen UID:
895448
Concept ID:
C4225288
Disease or Syndrome
In patients with SSMED, short stature and microcephaly are apparent at birth, and there is progressive postnatal growth failure. Endocrine dysfunction, including hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multinodular goiter, and diabetes mellitus, is present in affected adults. Progressive ataxia has been reported in some patients, with onset ranging from the second to fifth decade of life. In addition, a few patients have developed tumors, suggesting that there may be a predisposition to tumorigenesis. In contrast to syndromes involving defects in other components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex (see, e.g., 606593), no clinically overt immunodeficiency has been observed in SSMED, although laboratory analysis has revealed lymphopenia or borderline leukopenia in some patients (Murray et al., 2015; Bee et al., 2015; de Bruin et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2015).
Growth restriction, severe, with distinctive facies
MedGen UID:
894912
Concept ID:
C4225307
Disease or Syndrome
Robinow syndrome, autosomal dominant 2
MedGen UID:
897039
Concept ID:
C4225363
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly); genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis/webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora); dysmorphic facial features; dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth); bilobed tongue; occasional prenatal macrocephaly with postnatal decrease in head circumference. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defect, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by DVL1 pathogenic variants, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 13 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
898712
Concept ID:
C4225378
Disease or Syndrome
Ritscher-schinzel syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897005
Concept ID:
C4225419
Disease or Syndrome
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome-2 is an X-linked recessive syndromic form of intellectual disability associated with posterior fossa defects, cardiac malformations, and minor abnormalities of the face and distal extremities (summary by Kolanczyk et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome, see RTSC1 (220210).
BILE ACID SYNTHESIS DEFECT, CONGENITAL, 5 (1 family)
MedGen UID:
898881
Concept ID:
C4225615
Finding

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Cheng Z, Wang M, Xu C, Pei Y, Liu JC, Huang H, He D, Lu P
Andrologia 2017 Feb;49(1) Epub 2016 Apr 25 doi: 10.1111/and.12592. PMID: 27108669
Barthold JS, Reinhardt S, Thorup J
Eur J Pediatr Surg 2016 Oct;26(5):399-408. Epub 2016 Sep 19 doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1592416. PMID: 27642851
Hadziselimovic F
Urol Int 2016;96(3):249-54. Epub 2016 Jan 30 doi: 10.1159/000443741. PMID: 26824668
Zhou B, Tang T, Chen P, Pu Y, Ma M, Zhang D, Li L, Zhang P, Song Y, Zhang L
J Pediatr Urol 2015 Jun;11(3):132.e1-5. Epub 2015 Mar 10 doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2015.02.007. PMID: 25802106
Christman MS, Zderic SA, Kolon TF
J Urol 2013 Oct;190(4 Suppl):1561-5. Epub 2013 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.02.017. PMID: 23416638

Diagnosis

Hadziselimovic F
Urol Int 2016;96(3):249-54. Epub 2016 Jan 30 doi: 10.1159/000443741. PMID: 26824668
Varela-Cives R, Mendez-Gallart R, Estevez-Martinez E, Rodriguez-Barca P, Bautista-Casasnovas A, Pombo-Arias M, Tojo-Sierra R
Int Braz J Urol 2015 Jan-Feb;41(1):57-66. PMID: 25928530Free PMC Article
Christman MS, Zderic SA, Kolon TF
J Urol 2013 Oct;190(4 Suppl):1561-5. Epub 2013 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.02.017. PMID: 23416638
Zakaria M, Azab S, El baz M, Fawaz L, Bahagat A
J Pediatr Urol 2013 Dec;9(6 Pt A):815-9. Epub 2012 Dec 4 doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2012.10.024. PMID: 23218756
Trsinar B, Muravec UR
World J Urol 2009 Aug;27(4):513-9. Epub 2009 Apr 8 doi: 10.1007/s00345-009-0406-0. PMID: 19352683

Therapy

Hadziselimovic F
Urol Int 2016;96(3):249-54. Epub 2016 Jan 30 doi: 10.1159/000443741. PMID: 26824668
Varela-Cives R, Mendez-Gallart R, Estevez-Martinez E, Rodriguez-Barca P, Bautista-Casasnovas A, Pombo-Arias M, Tojo-Sierra R
Int Braz J Urol 2015 Jan-Feb;41(1):57-66. PMID: 25928530Free PMC Article
Zakaria M, Azab S, El baz M, Fawaz L, Bahagat A
J Pediatr Urol 2013 Dec;9(6 Pt A):815-9. Epub 2012 Dec 4 doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2012.10.024. PMID: 23218756
Trsinar B, Muravec UR
World J Urol 2009 Aug;27(4):513-9. Epub 2009 Apr 8 doi: 10.1007/s00345-009-0406-0. PMID: 19352683
Ku JH, Kim ME, Lee NK, Park YH
Urol Res 2003 Oct;31(5):312-6. Epub 2003 Jul 25 doi: 10.1007/s00240-003-0341-2. PMID: 14574535

Prognosis

Moslemi MK
J Pediatr Urol 2014 Apr;10(2):230-2. Epub 2013 Sep 15 doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.08.009. PMID: 24090631
Christman MS, Zderic SA, Kolon TF
J Urol 2013 Oct;190(4 Suppl):1561-5. Epub 2013 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.02.017. PMID: 23416638
Zakaria M, Azab S, El baz M, Fawaz L, Bahagat A
J Pediatr Urol 2013 Dec;9(6 Pt A):815-9. Epub 2012 Dec 4 doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2012.10.024. PMID: 23218756
Bayne AP, Alonzo DG, Hsieh MH, Roth DR
J Urol 2011 Oct;186(4 Suppl):1601-5. Epub 2011 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.03.102. PMID: 21855921
Trsinar B, Muravec UR
World J Urol 2009 Aug;27(4):513-9. Epub 2009 Apr 8 doi: 10.1007/s00345-009-0406-0. PMID: 19352683

Clinical prediction guides

Niepiekło-Miniewska W, Kuśnierczyk P, Havrylyuk A, Kamieniczna M, Nakonechnyy A, Chopyak V, Kurpisz M
Reprod Biol 2015 Dec;15(4):217-22. Epub 2015 Sep 8 doi: 10.1016/j.repbio.2015.08.001. PMID: 26679162
Zeidler C, Woelfle J, Draaken M, Mughal SS, Große G, Hilger AC, Dworschak GC, Boemers TM, Jenetzky E, Zwink N, Lacher M, Schmidt D, Schmiedeke E, Grasshoff-Derr S, Märzheuser S, Holland-Cunz S, Schäfer M, Bartels E, Keppler K, Palta M, Leonhardt J, Kujath C, Rißmann A, Nöthen MM, Reutter H, Ludwig M
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2014 Oct;100(10):750-9. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1002/bdra.23278. PMID: 25131394
Zakaria M, Azab S, El baz M, Fawaz L, Bahagat A
J Pediatr Urol 2013 Dec;9(6 Pt A):815-9. Epub 2012 Dec 4 doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2012.10.024. PMID: 23218756
Kurpisz M, Nakonechnyy A, Niepieklo-Miniewska W, Havrylyuk A, Kamieniczna M, Nowakowska B, Chopyak V, Kusnierczyk P
Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2011 Sep 28;9:129. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-9-129. PMID: 21955839Free PMC Article
Ars E, Lo Giacco D, Bassas L, Nuti F, Rajmil O, Ruíz P, Garat JM, Ruiz-Castané E, Krausz C
Int J Androl 2011 Aug;34(4):333-8. Epub 2010 Jul 16 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2010.01088.x. PMID: 20636340

Recent systematic reviews

Deng C, Dai R, Li X, Liu F
Pediatr Surg Int 2016 Oct;32(10):981-7. Epub 2016 Jul 4 doi: 10.1007/s00383-016-3926-x. PMID: 27376826
Bu Q, Pan Z, Jiang S, Wang A, Cheng H
Horm Metab Res 2016 May;48(5):318-24. Epub 2016 Apr 6 doi: 10.1055/s-0042-104059. PMID: 27050251
Zhang L, Wang XH, Zheng XM, Liu TZ, Zhang WB, Zheng H, Chen MF
PLoS One 2015;10(3):e0119006. Epub 2015 Mar 23 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119006. PMID: 25798927Free PMC Article
Chua ME, Mendoza JS, Gaston MJ, Luna SL Jr, Morales ML Jr
J Pediatr Surg 2014 Nov;49(11):1659-67. Epub 2014 Jul 25 doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.06.013. PMID: 25475814
Kolon TF, Herndon CD, Baker LA, Baskin LS, Baxter CG, Cheng EY, Diaz M, Lee PA, Seashore CJ, Tasian GE, Barthold JS; American Urological Assocation.
J Urol 2014 Aug;192(2):337-45. Epub 2014 May 20 doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2014.05.005. PMID: 24857650

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