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Mowat-Wilson syndrome(MOWS)

MedGen UID:
341067
Concept ID:
C1856113
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Hirschsprung disease mental retardation syndrome; Mental retardation, microcephaly, and distinct facial features with or without Hirschsprung disease; MOWS
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: Microcephaly, mental retardation and distinct features, with or without Hirschsprung disease (703535000); Mowat-Wilson syndrome (703535000); Hirschsprung disease-mental retardation syndrome (703535000)
 
Gene (location): ZEB2 (2q22.3)
OMIM®: 235730
Orphanet: ORPHA2152

Definition

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by the following: Distinctive facial features. Structural anomalies including: Hirschsprung disease. Genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males). Congenital heart defects (particularly abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves). Agenesis or hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. Eye defects (microphthalmia and Axenfeld anomaly). Functional differences including: Moderate to severe intellectual disability. Severe speech impairment with relative preservation of receptive language. Seizures. Growth retardation with microcephaly. Chronic constipation in those without Hirschsprung disease. [from GTR]

Additional descriptions

From GeneReviews
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by the following: Distinctive facial features. Structural anomalies including: Hirschsprung disease. Genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males). Congenital heart defects (particularly abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves). Agenesis or hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. Eye defects (microphthalmia and Axenfeld anomaly). Functional differences including: Moderate to severe intellectual disability. Severe speech impairment with relative preservation of receptive language. Seizures. Growth retardation with microcephaly. Chronic constipation in those without Hirschsprung disease.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1412
From OMIM
Mowat-Wilson syndrome is an autosomal dominant complex developmental disorder; individuals with functional null mutations present with mental retardation, delayed motor development, epilepsy, and a wide spectrum of clinically heterogeneous features suggestive of neurocristopathies at the cephalic, cardiac, and vagal levels. Mowat-Wilson syndrome has many clinical features in common with Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (609460) but the 2 disorders are genetically distinct (Mowat et al., 2003). Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome is caused by mutation in the KIAA1279 gene (609367) located on 10q.  http://www.omim.org/entry/235730
From GHR
Mowat-Wilson syndrome is a genetic condition that affects many parts of the body. Major signs of this disorder frequently include distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, delayed development, an intestinal disorder called Hirschsprung disease, and other birth defects.Children with Mowat-Wilson syndrome have a square-shaped face with deep-set, widely spaced eyes. They also have a broad nasal bridge with a rounded nasal tip; a prominent and pointed chin; large, flaring eyebrows; and uplifted earlobes with a dimple in the middle. These facial features become more distinctive with age, and adults with Mowat-Wilson syndrome have an elongated face with heavy eyebrows and a pronounced chin and jaw. Affected people tend to have a smiling, open-mouthed expression, and they typically have friendly and happy personalities.Mowat-Wilson syndrome is often associated with an unusually small head (microcephaly), structural brain abnormalities, and intellectual disability ranging from moderate to severe. Speech is absent or severely impaired, and affected people may learn to speak only a few words. Many people with this condition can understand others' speech, however, and some use sign language to communicate. If speech develops, it is delayed until mid-childhood or later. Children with Mowat-Wilson syndrome also have delayed development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking.More than half of people with Mowat-Wilson syndrome are born with an intestinal disorder called Hirschsprung disease that causes severe constipation, intestinal blockage, and enlargement of the colon. Chronic constipation also occurs frequently in people with Mowat-Wilson syndrome who have not been diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease.Other features of Mowat-Wilson syndrome include short stature, seizures, heart defects, and abnormalities of the urinary tract and genitalia. Less commonly, this condition also affects the eyes, teeth, hands, and skin coloring (pigmentation). Although many different medical issues have been associated with Mowat-Wilson syndrome, not every individual with this condition has all of these features.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/mowat-wilson-syndrome

Clinical features

Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
8638
Concept ID:
C0014306
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal recession of the eyeball within the eye socket.
Esotropia
MedGen UID:
4550
Concept ID:
C0014877
Disease or Syndrome
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Iris coloboma
MedGen UID:
116097
Concept ID:
C0240063
Anatomical Abnormality
A coloboma of the iris.
Cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Bifid scrotum
MedGen UID:
90968
Concept ID:
C0341787
Congenital Abnormality
Midline indentation or cleft of the scrotum.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
305577
Concept ID:
C1691215
Congenital Abnormality
Displacement of the urethral opening on the ventral (inferior) surface of the penis.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital defect characterized by the failure of the ductus arteriosus to close soon after birth. As a consequence, blood from the aorta mixes with blood from the pulmonary artery. If untreated, it may lead to congestive heart failure.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Anatomical Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Pulmonary artery stenosis
MedGen UID:
65965
Concept ID:
C0238397
Anatomical Abnormality
A congenital or acquired cardiovascular abnormality characterized by the narrowing of the lumen of the main pulmonary artery or its branches. Signs and symptoms include dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, fatigue, and edema.
Pulmonary artery sling
MedGen UID:
341071
Concept ID:
C1856123
Finding
An anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery, such that it arises from the posterior aspect of the right pulmonary artery and passes between the trachea and esophagus to reach the left hilum.
Pulmonic stenosis
MedGen UID:
408291
Concept ID:
C1956257
Disease or Syndrome
A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract that can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis) or just below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis).
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to \
Abdominal distention
MedGen UID:
34
Concept ID:
C0000731
Finding
Distention of the abdomen.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
Aganglionic megacolon
MedGen UID:
6285
Concept ID:
C0025160
Pathologic Function
An abnormal dilation of the colon not due to obstruction.
Vomiting
MedGen UID:
12124
Concept ID:
C0042963
Sign or Symptom
Forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth by means of a series of involuntary spasmic contractions.
Abnormality of the abdominal wall
MedGen UID:
867301
Concept ID:
C4021664
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of any abnormality affecting the abdominal wall.
Ear malformation
MedGen UID:
75618
Concept ID:
C0266589
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the ear.
Large earlobe
MedGen UID:
334979
Concept ID:
C1844573
Finding
Increased volume of the earlobe, that is, abnormally prominent ear lobules.
Uplifted earlobe
MedGen UID:
344655
Concept ID:
C1856117
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal orientation of the earlobes such that they point out- and upward. That is, the lateral surface of ear lobe faces superiorly.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Excessive production of saliva.
Seizure Disorders
MedGen UID:
4506
Concept ID:
C0014544
Disease or Syndrome
A brain disorder characterized by episodes of abnormally increased neuronal discharge resulting in transient episodes of sensory or motor neurological dysfunction, or psychic dysfunction. These episodes may or may not be associated with loss of consciousness or convulsions.
Aganglionic megacolon
MedGen UID:
6285
Concept ID:
C0025160
Pathologic Function
An abnormal dilation of the colon not due to obstruction.
Intellectual disability, moderate
MedGen UID:
7680
Concept ID:
C0026351
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Moderate mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 35-49.
Corpus callosum agenesis
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Happy demeanor
MedGen UID:
344654
Concept ID:
C1856115
Finding
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70.
No development of motor milestones
MedGen UID:
892432
Concept ID:
C4020874
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Pulmonary artery stenosis
MedGen UID:
65965
Concept ID:
C0238397
Anatomical Abnormality
A congenital or acquired cardiovascular abnormality characterized by the narrowing of the lumen of the main pulmonary artery or its branches. Signs and symptoms include dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, fatigue, and edema.
Pulmonary artery sling
MedGen UID:
341071
Concept ID:
C1856123
Finding
An anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery, such that it arises from the posterior aspect of the right pulmonary artery and passes between the trachea and esophagus to reach the left hilum.
Cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Bifid scrotum
MedGen UID:
90968
Concept ID:
C0341787
Congenital Abnormality
Midline indentation or cleft of the scrotum.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
305577
Concept ID:
C1691215
Congenital Abnormality
Displacement of the urethral opening on the ventral (inferior) surface of the penis.
Muscular hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
A condition of decreased tone of the skeletal muscles and diminished resistance to passive stretching.
Generalized muscle hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
811969
Concept ID:
C3805639
Finding
Hypertrophy (increase in size) of muscle cells in a generalized (not localized) distribution.
Abnormality of metabolism/homeostasis
MedGen UID:
867398
Concept ID:
C4021768
Finding
Pectus carinatum
MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Finding
A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest (\
Abnormality of the rib cage
MedGen UID:
428272
Concept ID:
CN001412
Finding
A morphological anomaly of the rib cage.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Excessive production of saliva.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
8638
Concept ID:
C0014306
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal recession of the eyeball within the eye socket.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Delayed eruption of teeth
MedGen UID:
68678
Concept ID:
C0239174
Pathologic Function
Delayed tooth eruption, which can be defined as tooth eruption more than 2 SD beyond the mean eruption age.
Iris coloboma
MedGen UID:
116097
Concept ID:
C0240063
Anatomical Abnormality
A coloboma of the iris.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Submucous cleft hard palate
MedGen UID:
98472
Concept ID:
C0432103
Congenital Abnormality
Hard-palate submucous clefts are characterized by bony defects in the midline of the bony palate that are covered by the mucous membrane of the roof of the mouth. It may be possible to detect a submucous cleft hard palate upon palpation as a notch in the bony palate.
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Prominent nasal tip
MedGen UID:
383839
Concept ID:
C1856118
Finding
Low hanging columella
MedGen UID:
344656
Concept ID:
C1856119
Finding
Columella extending inferior to the level of the nasal base, when viewed from the side.
Broad eyebrow
MedGen UID:
344657
Concept ID:
C1856121
Finding
Regional increase in the width (height) of the eyebrow.
Broad eyebrow
MedGen UID:
344657
Concept ID:
C1856121
Finding
Regional increase in the width (height) of the eyebrow.
Supernumerary nipple
MedGen UID:
120564
Concept ID:
C0266011
Congenital Abnormality
Presence of more than two nipples.
Supernumerary nipple
MedGen UID:
120564
Concept ID:
C0266011
Congenital Abnormality
Presence of more than two nipples.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVMowat-Wilson syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Mowat-Wilson syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Zollino M, Garavelli L, Rauch A
Eur J Hum Genet 2011 Aug;19(8) Epub 2011 Feb 23 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.12. PMID: 21343952Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Niemczyk J, Einfeld S, Mowat D, Equit M, Wagner C, Curfs L, von Gontard A
Res Dev Disabil 2017 Mar;62:230-237. Epub 2017 Jan 13 doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2017.01.006. PMID: 28094084
Coyle D, Puri P
Pediatr Surg Int 2015 Aug;31(8):711-7. Epub 2015 Jul 9 doi: 10.1007/s00383-015-3732-x. PMID: 26156877
Paz JA, Kim CA, Goossens M, Giurgea I, Marques-Dias MJ
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2015 Jan;73(1):12-7. Epub 2015 Jan 1 doi: 10.1590/0004-282X20140182. PMID: 25608121
Cordelli DM, Garavelli L, Savasta S, Guerra A, Pellicciari A, Giordano L, Bonetti S, Cecconi I, Wischmeijer A, Seri M, Rosato S, Gelmini C, Della Giustina E, Ferrari AR, Zanotta N, Epifanio R, Grioni D, Malbora B, Mammi I, Mari F, Buoni S, Mostardini R, Grosso S, Pantaleoni C, Doz M, Poch-Olivé ML, Rivieri F, Sorge G, Simonte G, Licata F, Tarani L, Terazzi E, Mazzanti L, Cerruti Mainardi P, Boni A, Faravelli F, Grasso M, Bianchi P, Zollino M, Franzoni E
Am J Med Genet A 2013 Feb;161A(2):273-84. Epub 2013 Jan 15 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35717. PMID: 23322667
Saunders CJ, Zhao W, Ardinger HH
Am J Med Genet A 2009 Nov;149A(11):2527-31. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33067. PMID: 19842203

Diagnosis

Evans E, Mowat D, Wilson M, Einfeld S
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Mar;170(3):654-60. Epub 2015 Dec 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37502. PMID: 26686679
Murray SB, Spangler BB, Helm BM, Vergano SS
Am J Med Genet A 2015 Oct;167A(10):2402-5. Epub 2015 May 26 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37171. PMID: 26012591
Wenger TL, Harr M, Ricciardi S, Bhoj E, Santani A, Adam MP, Barnett SS, Ganetzky R, McDonald-McGinn DM, Battaglia D, Bigoni S, Selicorni A, Sorge G, Monica MD, Mari F, Andreucci E, Romano S, Cocchi G, Savasta S, Malbora B, Marangi G, Garavelli L, Zollino M, Zackai EH
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Oct;164A(10):2557-66. Epub 2014 Aug 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36696. PMID: 25123255
Yamada Y, Nomura N, Yamada K, Matsuo M, Suzuki Y, Sameshima K, Kimura R, Yamamoto Y, Fukushi D, Fukuhara Y, Ishihara N, Nishi E, Imataka G, Suzumura H, Hamano S, Shimizu K, Iwakoshi M, Ohama K, Ohta A, Wakamoto H, Kajita M, Miura K, Yokochi K, Kosaki K, Kuroda T, Kosaki R, Hiraki Y, Saito K, Mizuno S, Kurosawa K, Okamoto N, Wakamatsu N
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Aug;164A(8):1899-908. Epub 2014 Apr 8 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36551. PMID: 24715670
Park JY, Cho EH, Lee EH, Kang YS, Jun KR, Hur YJ
Gene 2013 Dec 15;532(2):307-9. Epub 2013 Sep 9 doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.07.067. PMID: 24029077

Therapy

Abdalla EM, Zayed LH
J Child Neurol 2014 Dec;29(12):NP168-70. Epub 2013 Nov 25 doi: 10.1177/0883073813509120. PMID: 24282181
Cordelli DM, Garavelli L, Savasta S, Guerra A, Pellicciari A, Giordano L, Bonetti S, Cecconi I, Wischmeijer A, Seri M, Rosato S, Gelmini C, Della Giustina E, Ferrari AR, Zanotta N, Epifanio R, Grioni D, Malbora B, Mammi I, Mari F, Buoni S, Mostardini R, Grosso S, Pantaleoni C, Doz M, Poch-Olivé ML, Rivieri F, Sorge G, Simonte G, Licata F, Tarani L, Terazzi E, Mazzanti L, Cerruti Mainardi P, Boni A, Faravelli F, Grasso M, Bianchi P, Zollino M, Franzoni E
Am J Med Genet A 2013 Feb;161A(2):273-84. Epub 2013 Jan 15 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35717. PMID: 23322667

Prognosis

Cordelli DM, Garavelli L, Savasta S, Guerra A, Pellicciari A, Giordano L, Bonetti S, Cecconi I, Wischmeijer A, Seri M, Rosato S, Gelmini C, Della Giustina E, Ferrari AR, Zanotta N, Epifanio R, Grioni D, Malbora B, Mammi I, Mari F, Buoni S, Mostardini R, Grosso S, Pantaleoni C, Doz M, Poch-Olivé ML, Rivieri F, Sorge G, Simonte G, Licata F, Tarani L, Terazzi E, Mazzanti L, Cerruti Mainardi P, Boni A, Faravelli F, Grasso M, Bianchi P, Zollino M, Franzoni E
Am J Med Genet A 2013 Feb;161A(2):273-84. Epub 2013 Jan 15 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35717. PMID: 23322667
Smigiel R, Szafranska A, Czyzewska M, Rauch A, Zweier Ch, Patkowski D
J Appl Genet 2010;51(1):111-3. PMID: 20145308
Bonnard A, Zeidan S, Degas V, Viala J, Baumann C, Berrebi D, Perrusson O, El Ghoneimi A
J Pediatr Surg 2009 Mar;44(3):587-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.10.066. PMID: 19302864
Ohtsuka M, Oguni H, Ito Y, Nakayama T, Matsuo M, Osawa M, Saito K, Yamada Y, Wakamatsu N
J Child Neurol 2008 Mar;23(3):274-8. Epub 2008 Jan 29 doi: 10.1177/0883073807309231. PMID: 18230842
Zweier C, Thiel CT, Dufke A, Crow YJ, Meinecke P, Suri M, Ala-Mello S, Beemer F, Bernasconi S, Bianchi P, Bier A, Devriendt K, Dimitrov B, Firth H, Gallagher RC, Garavelli L, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Hudgins L, Kääriäinen H, Karstens S, Krantz I, Mannhardt A, Medne L, Mücke J, Kibaek M, Krogh LN, Peippo M, Rittinger O, Schulz S, Schelley SL, Temple IK, Dennis NR, Van der Knaap MS, Wheeler P, Yerushalmi B, Zenker M, Seidel H, Lachmeijer A, Prescott T, Kraus C, Lowry RB, Rauch A
Eur J Med Genet 2005 Apr-Jun;48(2):97-111. Epub 2005 Feb 25 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2005.01.003. PMID: 16053902

Clinical prediction guides

Evans E, Mowat D, Wilson M, Einfeld S
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Mar;170(3):654-60. Epub 2015 Dec 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37502. PMID: 26686679
Takagi T, Nishizaki Y, Matsui F, Wakamatsu N, Higashi Y
Hum Mol Genet 2015 Nov 15;24(22):6390-402. Epub 2015 Aug 28 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddv350. PMID: 26319231
Ferris Villanueva E, Guerrero Bautista R, Chica Marchal A
Nutr Hosp 2015 Apr 1;31(4):1882-4. doi: 10.3305/nh.2015.31.4.8379. PMID: 25795985
Paz JA, Kim CA, Goossens M, Giurgea I, Marques-Dias MJ
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2015 Jan;73(1):12-7. Epub 2015 Jan 1 doi: 10.1590/0004-282X20140182. PMID: 25608121
Ghoumid J, Drevillon L, Alavi-Naini SM, Bondurand N, Rio M, Briand-Suleau A, Nasser M, Goodwin L, Raymond P, Yanicostas C, Goossens M, Lyonnet S, Mowat D, Amiel J, Soussi-Yanicostas N, Giurgea I
Hum Mol Genet 2013 Jul 1;22(13):2652-61. Epub 2013 Mar 5 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt114. PMID: 23466526

Recent systematic reviews

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