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Celiac disease(CELIAC1)

MedGen UID:
3291
Concept ID:
C0007570
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CELIAC SPRUE, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 1; CELIAC1; Gluten-sensitive enteropathy; GLUTEN-SENSITIVE ENTEROPATHY, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 1
Modes of inheritance:
Heterogeneous
MedGen UID:
67020
Concept ID:
C0242960
Organism Attribute
Source: HPO
The production of the same or similar phenotypes (observed biochemical, physiological, and morphological characteristics of a person determined by his/her genotype) by different genetic mechanisms. There are two types: (1) allelic heterogeneity - when different alleles at a locus can produce variable expression of a condition; and (2) locus heterogeneity - the term used to describe disease in which mutations at different loci can produce the same disease phenotype.
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Multifactorial inheritance
MedGen UID:
109109
Concept ID:
C0600599
Genetic Function
Sources: HPO, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that depends on a mixture of major and minor genetic determinants possibly together with environmental factors. Diseases inherited in this manner are termed complex diseases.
Autosomal recessive inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: Celiac disease (396331005); CD - Celiac disease (396331005); Idiopathic steatorrhea (396331005); Celiac sprue (396331005); CS - Celiac sprue (396331005); Celiac syndrome (396331005); Wheat-sensitive enteropathy (396331005); Gluten enteropathy (396331005); Sprue (396331005); Gluten-responsive sprue (396331005); GSE - Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (396331005); Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (396331005); Non-tropical sprue (396331005); Gluten-induced enteropathy syndrome (396331005); Nontropical sprue (396331005)
 
Genes (locations): HLA-DQA1 (6p21.32); HLA-DQB1 (6p21.32)
Related genes: MYO9B, CTLA4
OMIM®: 212750
HPO: HP:0002608

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, anorexia, lactose intolerance, abdominal distention, and irritability) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (iron deficiency anemia, dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Annette K Taylor  |  Benjamin Lebwohl  |  Cara L Snyder, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue and gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE), is a multifactorial disorder of the small intestine that is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. It is characterized by malabsorption resulting from inflammatory injury to the mucosa of the small intestine after the ingestion of wheat gluten or related rye and barley proteins (summary by Farrell and Kelly, 2002). Long regarded as gastrointestinal disorder of childhood, the disease is now considered to be a chronic systemic autoimmune disease and is more often diagnosed in adults than in children (Monsuur et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of celiac disease, see MAPPING.  http://www.omim.org/entry/212750
From GHR
Celiac disease is a condition in which the immune system is abnormally sensitive to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder; autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. Without a strict, lifelong gluten-free diet, inflammation resulting from immune system overactivity may cause a wide variety of signs and symptoms involving many parts of the body.Celiac disease can develop at any age after an individual starts eating foods containing gluten. The classic symptoms of the condition result from inflammation affecting the gastrointestinal tract. This inflammation damages the villi, which are small, finger-like projections that line the small intestine and provide a greatly increased surface area to absorb nutrients. In celiac disease, the villi become shortened and eventually flatten out. Intestinal damage causes diarrhea and poor absorption of nutrients, which may lead to weight loss. Abdominal pain, swelling (distention), and food intolerances are common in celiac disease. Inflammation associated with celiac disease may lead to an increased risk of developing certain gastrointestinal cancers such as cancers of the small intestine or esophagus.Inflammation and poor nutrient absorption may lead to problems affecting many other organs and systems of the body in affected individuals. These health problems may include iron deficiency that results in a low number of red blood cells (anemia), vitamin deficiencies, low bone mineral density (osteoporosis), itchy skin rashes (dermatitis herpetiformis), defects in the enamel of the teeth, chronic fatigue, joint pain, poor growth, delayed puberty, infertility, or repeated miscarriages. Neurological problems have also been associated with celiac disease; these include migraine headaches, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and recurrent seizures (epilepsy). Many people with celiac disease have one or more of these varied health problems but do not have gastrointestinal symptoms. This form of the condition is called nonclassic celiac disease. Researchers now believe that nonclassic celiac disease is actually more common than the classic form.Celiac disease often goes undiagnosed because many of its signs and symptoms are nonspecific, which means they may occur in many disorders. Most people who have one or more of these nonspecific health problems do not have celiac disease. On average, a diagnosis of celiac disease is not made until 6 to 10 years after symptoms begin.Some people have silent celiac disease, in which they have no symptoms of the disorder. However, people with silent celiac disease do have immune proteins in their blood (antibodies) that are common in celiac disease. They also have inflammatory damage to their small intestine that can be detected with a biopsy.In a small number of cases, celiac disease does not improve with a gluten-free diet and progresses to a condition called refractory sprue. Refractory sprue is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, poor absorption of nutrients, and an increased risk of developing a type of cancer of the immune cells called T-cell lymphoma.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/celiac-disease

Clinical features

Abdominal pain
MedGen UID:
7803
Concept ID:
C0000737
Sign or Symptom
Your abdomen extends from below your chest to your groin. Some people call it the stomach, but your abdomen contains many other important organs. Pain in the abdomen can come from any one of them. The pain may start somewhere else, such as your chest. Severe pain doesn't always mean a serious problem. Nor does mild pain mean a problem is not serious. . Call your healthcare provider if mild pain lasts a week or more or if you have pain with other symptoms. Get medical help immediately if. - You have abdominal pain that is sudden and sharp. -You also have pain in your chest, neck or shoulder . - You're vomiting blood or have blood in your stool . - Your abdomen is stiff, hard and tender to touch . -You can't move your bowels, especially if you're also vomiting .
Joint pain
MedGen UID:
13917
Concept ID:
C0003862
Sign or Symptom
Joint pain.
Diabetes mellitus type 1
MedGen UID:
41522
Concept ID:
C0011854
Disease or Syndrome
The type of diabetes mellitus called IDDM is a disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of IDDM have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classical phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.
Delayed Puberty
MedGen UID:
46203
Concept ID:
C0034012
Pathologic Function
The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.
Abdominal distention
MedGen UID:
34
Concept ID:
C0000731
Finding
Distention of the abdomen.
Abdominal pain
MedGen UID:
7803
Concept ID:
C0000737
Sign or Symptom
Your abdomen extends from below your chest to your groin. Some people call it the stomach, but your abdomen contains many other important organs. Pain in the abdomen can come from any one of them. The pain may start somewhere else, such as your chest. Severe pain doesn't always mean a serious problem. Nor does mild pain mean a problem is not serious. . Call your healthcare provider if mild pain lasts a week or more or if you have pain with other symptoms. Get medical help immediately if. - You have abdominal pain that is sudden and sharp. -You also have pain in your chest, neck or shoulder . - You're vomiting blood or have blood in your stool . - Your abdomen is stiff, hard and tender to touch . -You can't move your bowels, especially if you're also vomiting .
Diarrhea
MedGen UID:
8360
Concept ID:
C0011991
Sign or Symptom
Diarrhea means that you have loose, watery stools more than three times in one day. You may also have cramps, bloating, nausea and an urgent need to have a bowel movement. . Causes of diarrhea include bacteria, viruses or parasites, certain medicines, food intolerances and diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine or colon. In many cases, no cause can be found. . Although usually not harmful, diarrhea can become dangerous or signal a more serious problem. You should talk to your doctor if you have a strong pain in your abdomen or rectum, a fever, blood in your stools, severe diarrhea for more than three days or symptoms of dehydration. If your child has diarrhea, do not hesitate to call the doctor for advice. Diarrhea can be dangerous in children. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Vomiting
MedGen UID:
12124
Concept ID:
C0042963
Sign or Symptom
Forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth by means of a series of involuntary spasmic contractions.
Elevated hepatic transaminases
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Abnormality of the abdominal wall
MedGen UID:
867301
Concept ID:
C4021664
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of any abnormality affecting the abdominal wall.
Cerebral calcification
MedGen UID:
124360
Concept ID:
C0270685
Finding
The presence of calcium deposition within brain structures.
Celiac disease
MedGen UID:
3291
Concept ID:
C0007570
Disease or Syndrome
Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, anorexia, lactose intolerance, abdominal distention, and irritability) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (iron deficiency anemia, dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Selective IgA deficiency
MedGen UID:
57934
Concept ID:
C0162538
Disease or Syndrome
Immunoglobulin (Ig) A deficiency (IGAD) is characterized by decreased or absent levels of serum IgA in the presence of normal serum levels of IgG and IgM in a patient older than 4 years of age in whom other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia have been excluded. IgA in the dimeric form is the dominant immunoglobulin in luminal secretions, such as saliva, tears, bronchial secretions, nasal mucosal secretions, and mucous secretions of the small intestine. Individuals with selective IgA deficiency may be asymptomatic or have recurrent sinopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections, allergic disorders, and autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis of IgA deficiency depends on the measurement of monomeric IgA concentrations in serum; thus individuals with IgA deficiency may have IgA in mucosal systems, which may offer some protection (review by Yel, 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of IgA Deficiency The IGAD1 locus maps to chromosome 6p21. See also IGAD2 (609529), which is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF13B gene (604907) on chromosome 17p11.
Folic acid deficiency
MedGen UID:
42057
Concept ID:
C0016412
Disease or Syndrome
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Cobalamin deficiency
MedGen UID:
21880
Concept ID:
C0042847
Disease or Syndrome
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
Vitamin D deficiency
MedGen UID:
12114
Concept ID:
C0042870
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the blood.
Vitamin K deficiency
MedGen UID:
22672
Concept ID:
C0042880
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of vitamin K. It may lead to bleeding, manifested with ecchymoses, petechiae, and hematomas. In infants it may cause hemorrhagic disease of newborn with intracranial and retroperitoneal bleeding.
Selective IgA deficiency
MedGen UID:
57934
Concept ID:
C0162538
Disease or Syndrome
Immunoglobulin (Ig) A deficiency (IGAD) is characterized by decreased or absent levels of serum IgA in the presence of normal serum levels of IgG and IgM in a patient older than 4 years of age in whom other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia have been excluded. IgA in the dimeric form is the dominant immunoglobulin in luminal secretions, such as saliva, tears, bronchial secretions, nasal mucosal secretions, and mucous secretions of the small intestine. Individuals with selective IgA deficiency may be asymptomatic or have recurrent sinopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections, allergic disorders, and autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis of IgA deficiency depends on the measurement of monomeric IgA concentrations in serum; thus individuals with IgA deficiency may have IgA in mucosal systems, which may offer some protection (review by Yel, 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of IgA Deficiency The IGAD1 locus maps to chromosome 6p21. See also IGAD2 (609529), which is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF13B gene (604907) on chromosome 17p11.
Cerebral calcification
MedGen UID:
124360
Concept ID:
C0270685
Finding
The presence of calcium deposition within brain structures.
Alopecia
MedGen UID:
7982
Concept ID:
C0002170
Finding
You lose up to 100 hairs from your scalp every day. That's normal, and in most people, those hairs grow back. But many men -- and some women -- lose hair as they grow older. You can also lose your hair if you have certain diseases, such as thyroid problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. . Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration. .
Eczematous rash
MedGen UID:
3968
Concept ID:
C0013595
Disease or Syndrome
Eczema is a term for several different types of skin swelling. Eczema is also called dermatitis. It is not dangerous, but most types cause red, swollen and itchy skin. Factors that can cause eczema include other diseases, irritating substances, allergies and your genetic makeup. Eczema is not contagious. The most common type of eczema is atopic dermatitis. It is an allergic condition that makes your skin dry and itchy. It is most common in babies and children. Eczema is a chronic disease. You can prevent some types of eczema by avoiding irritants, stress, and the things you are allergic to.

Conditions with this feature

Celiac disease
MedGen UID:
3291
Concept ID:
C0007570
Disease or Syndrome
Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, anorexia, lactose intolerance, abdominal distention, and irritability) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (iron deficiency anemia, dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
Floating-Harbor syndrome
MedGen UID:
152667
Concept ID:
C0729582
Disease or Syndrome
Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features; low birth weight, normal head circumference, and short stature; bone age delay that normalizes between ages six and 12 years; skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, clubbing, clinodactyly, short thumbs, prominent joints, clavicular abnormalities); severe receptive and expressive language impairment; hypernasality and high-pitched voice; and intellectual disability that is typically mild to moderate. Difficulties with temperament and behavior that are present in many children tend to improve in adulthood. Other features can include: hyperopia and/or strabismus; conductive hearing loss; seizures; gastroesophageal reflux; renal anomalies (e.g., hydronephrosis/renal pelviectasis, cysts, and/or agenesis) and genital anomalies (e.g., hypospadias and/or undescended testes).
Epilepsy occipital calcifications
MedGen UID:
341654
Concept ID:
C1856930
Disease or Syndrome
Autoimmune disease, multisystem, infantile-onset, 1
MedGen UID:
799886
Concept ID:
CN207828
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset multisystem autoimmune disease-1 is characterized by early childhood onset of a spectrum of autoimmune disorders affecting multiple organs. Common manifestations include insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and autoimmune enteropathy, or celiac disease, and autoimmune hematologic disorders. Other features include short stature and nonspecific dermatitis. More variable features include hypothyroidism, autoimmune arthritis, and delayed puberty. Some patients may show recurrent infections. The disorder results from an inborn error of cytokine signaling (summary by Flanagan et al., 2014 and Milner et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile-Onset Multisystem Autoimmune Disease See also ADMIO2 (617006), caused by mutation in the ZAP70 gene (176947) on chromosome 2q12.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Ludvigsson JF, Bai JC, Biagi F, Card TR, Ciacci C, Ciclitira PJ, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Holdoway A, van Heel DA, Kaukinen K, Leffler DA, Leonard JN, Lundin KE, McGough N, Davidson M, Murray JA, Swift GL, Walker MM, Zingone F, Sanders DS; BSG Coeliac Disease Guidelines Development Group.; British Society of Gastroenterology.
Gut 2014 Aug;63(8):1210-28. Epub 2014 Jun 10 doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306578. PMID: 24917550Free PMC Article
Bai JC, Fried M, Corazza GR, Schuppan D, Farthing M, Catassi C, Greco L, Cohen H, Ciacci C, Eliakim R, Fasano A, González A, Krabshuis JH, LeMair A; World Gastroenterology Organization.
J Clin Gastroenterol 2013 Feb;47(2):121-6. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31827a6f83. PMID: 23314668

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Kylökäs A, Kaukinen K, Huhtala H, Collin P, Mäki M, Kurppa K
BMC Gastroenterol 2016 Jul 25;16(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s12876-016-0488-2. PMID: 27457377Free PMC Article
Nenna R, Petrarca L, Verdecchia P, Florio M, Pietropaoli N, Mastrogiorgio G, Bavastrelli M, Bonamico M, Cucchiara S
Dig Liver Dis 2016 May;48(5):495-8. Epub 2015 Dec 31 doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2015.12.015. PMID: 26826905
Uusitalo U, Lee HS, Aronsson CA, Yang J, Virtanen SM, Norris J, Agardh D; Environmental Determinants of the Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study group.
Am J Clin Nutr 2015 Nov;102(5):1216-21. Epub 2015 Oct 7 doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.119370. PMID: 26447157Free PMC Article
Jensen ET, Eluri S, Lebwohl B, Genta RM, Dellon ES
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Aug;13(8):1426-31. Epub 2015 Feb 24 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.02.018. PMID: 25724709Free PMC Article
Reilly NR, Lebwohl B, Hultcrantz R, Green PH, Ludvigsson JF
J Hepatol 2015 Jun;62(6):1405-11. Epub 2015 Jan 21 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.01.013. PMID: 25617505Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Nenna R, Petrarca L, Verdecchia P, Florio M, Pietropaoli N, Mastrogiorgio G, Bavastrelli M, Bonamico M, Cucchiara S
Dig Liver Dis 2016 May;48(5):495-8. Epub 2015 Dec 31 doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2015.12.015. PMID: 26826905
Uusitalo U, Lee HS, Aronsson CA, Yang J, Virtanen SM, Norris J, Agardh D; Environmental Determinants of the Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study group.
Am J Clin Nutr 2015 Nov;102(5):1216-21. Epub 2015 Oct 7 doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.119370. PMID: 26447157Free PMC Article
Jensen ET, Eluri S, Lebwohl B, Genta RM, Dellon ES
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Aug;13(8):1426-31. Epub 2015 Feb 24 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.02.018. PMID: 25724709Free PMC Article
Leffler DA, Kelly CP, Green PH, Fedorak RN, DiMarino A, Perrow W, Rasmussen H, Wang C, Bercik P, Bachir NM, Murray JA
Gastroenterology 2015 Jun;148(7):1311-9.e6. Epub 2015 Feb 13 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.008. PMID: 25683116Free PMC Article
Reilly NR, Lebwohl B, Hultcrantz R, Green PH, Ludvigsson JF
J Hepatol 2015 Jun;62(6):1405-11. Epub 2015 Jan 21 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.01.013. PMID: 25617505Free PMC Article

Therapy

Lebwohl B, Murray JA, Verdú EF, Crowe SE, Dennis M, Fasano A, Green PH, Guandalini S, Khosla C
Am J Gastroenterol 2016 Jan;111(1):12-4. Epub 2015 Aug 11 doi: 10.1038/ajg.2015.219. PMID: 26259710Free PMC Article
Uusitalo U, Lee HS, Aronsson CA, Yang J, Virtanen SM, Norris J, Agardh D; Environmental Determinants of the Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study group.
Am J Clin Nutr 2015 Nov;102(5):1216-21. Epub 2015 Oct 7 doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.119370. PMID: 26447157Free PMC Article
Elli L, Branchi F, Tomba C, Villalta D, Norsa L, Ferretti F, Roncoroni L, Bardella MT
World J Gastroenterol 2015 Jun 21;21(23):7110-9. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i23.7110. PMID: 26109797Free PMC Article
Choung RS, Rubio-Tapia A, Lahr BD, Kyle RA, Camilleri MJ, Locke GR 3rd, Talley NJ, Murray JA
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Nov;13(11):1937-43. Epub 2015 May 16 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.05.014. PMID: 25987301Free PMC Article
Leffler DA, Kelly CP, Green PH, Fedorak RN, DiMarino A, Perrow W, Rasmussen H, Wang C, Bercik P, Bachir NM, Murray JA
Gastroenterology 2015 Jun;148(7):1311-9.e6. Epub 2015 Feb 13 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.008. PMID: 25683116Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Sharma A, Liu X, Hadley D, Hagopian W, Liu E, Chen WM, Onengut-Gumuscu S, Simell V, Rewers M, Ziegler AG, Lernmark Å, Simell O, Toppari J, Krischer JP, Akolkar B, Rich SS, Agardh D, She JX; TEDDY Study Group.
PLoS One 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152476. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152476. PMID: 27015091Free PMC Article
Saccone G, Berghella V, Sarno L, Maruotti GM, Cetin I, Greco L, Khashan AS, McCarthy F, Martinelli D, Fortunato F, Martinelli P
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016 Feb;214(2):225-34. Epub 2015 Oct 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.09.080. PMID: 26432464
Uusitalo U, Lee HS, Aronsson CA, Yang J, Virtanen SM, Norris J, Agardh D; Environmental Determinants of the Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study group.
Am J Clin Nutr 2015 Nov;102(5):1216-21. Epub 2015 Oct 7 doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.119370. PMID: 26447157Free PMC Article
Elli L, Branchi F, Tomba C, Villalta D, Norsa L, Ferretti F, Roncoroni L, Bardella MT
World J Gastroenterol 2015 Jun 21;21(23):7110-9. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i23.7110. PMID: 26109797Free PMC Article
Reilly NR, Lebwohl B, Hultcrantz R, Green PH, Ludvigsson JF
J Hepatol 2015 Jun;62(6):1405-11. Epub 2015 Jan 21 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.01.013. PMID: 25617505Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Taavela J, Popp A, Korponay-Szabo IR, Ene A, Vornanen M, Saavalainen P, Lähdeaho ML, Ruuska T, Laurila K, Parvan A, Anca I, Kurppa K, Mäki M
Am J Gastroenterol 2016 Jan;111(1):124-33. Epub 2016 Jan 5 doi: 10.1038/ajg.2015.387. PMID: 26729547
Elli L, Branchi F, Tomba C, Villalta D, Norsa L, Ferretti F, Roncoroni L, Bardella MT
World J Gastroenterol 2015 Jun 21;21(23):7110-9. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i23.7110. PMID: 26109797Free PMC Article
Yang JJ, Thanataveerat A, Green PH, Lebwohl B
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Aug;13(8):1437-43. Epub 2015 Mar 25 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.03.022. PMID: 25818076Free PMC Article
Jensen ET, Eluri S, Lebwohl B, Genta RM, Dellon ES
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Aug;13(8):1426-31. Epub 2015 Feb 24 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.02.018. PMID: 25724709Free PMC Article
Leffler DA, Kelly CP, Green PH, Fedorak RN, DiMarino A, Perrow W, Rasmussen H, Wang C, Bercik P, Bachir NM, Murray JA
Gastroenterology 2015 Jun;148(7):1311-9.e6. Epub 2015 Feb 13 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.008. PMID: 25683116Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Saccone G, Berghella V, Sarno L, Maruotti GM, Cetin I, Greco L, Khashan AS, McCarthy F, Martinelli D, Fortunato F, Martinelli P
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