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Koolen-de Vries syndrome(KDVS)

MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: 17q21.31 deletion syndrome; 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome; CHROMOSOME 17q21.31 DELETION SYNDROME; Chromosome 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome; KANSL1-Related Intellectual Disability Syndrome; KDVS; Monosomy 17q21.31
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Sporadic
MedGen UID:
342827
Concept ID:
C1853237
Finding
Sources: HPO, OMIM
Cases of the disease in question occur without a previous family history, i.e., as isolated cases without being transmitted from a parent and without other siblings being affected.
Contiguous gene syndrome
MedGen UID:
383697
Concept ID:
C1855496
Disease or Syndrome
Source: HPO
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
Sporadic (HPO, OMIM)
SNOMED CT: Koolen De Vries syndrome (717338006)
 
Gene (location): KANSL1 (17q21.31)
OMIM®: 610443

Definition

The KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Global psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with the KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome function in the mild to moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include epilepsy (55%), congenital heart defects (39%), renal and urologic anomalies (37%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative. [from GTR]

Additional descriptions

From GeneReviews
The KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Global psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with the KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome function in the mild to moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include epilepsy (55%), congenital heart defects (39%), renal and urologic anomalies (37%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK24676
From OMIM
Koolen-De Vries syndrome is characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, friendly demeanor, and highly distinctive facial features, including tall, broad forehead, long face, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, tubular nose with bulbous nasal tip, and large ears. More variable features include cardiac or genitourinary anomalies and seizures (summary by Koolen et al., 2012).  http://www.omim.org/entry/610443
From GHR
Koolen-de Vries syndrome is a disorder characterized by developmental delay and mild to moderate intellectual disability. People with this disorder typically have a disposition that is described as cheerful, sociable, and cooperative. They usually have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in childhood. About half have recurrent seizures (epilepsy).Affected individuals often have distinctive facial features including a high, broad forehead; droopy eyelids (ptosis); a narrowing of the eye openings (blepharophimosis); outer corners of the eyes that point upward (upward-slanting palpebral fissures); skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds); a bulbous nose; and prominent ears. Males with Koolen-de Vries syndrome often have undescended testes (cryptorchidism). Defects in the walls between the chambers of the heart (septal defects) or other cardiac abnormalities, kidney problems, and skeletal anomalies such as foot deformities occur in some affected individuals.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/koolen-de-vries-syndrome

Clinical features

Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Acquired Abnormality
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Hypotelorism
MedGen UID:
96107
Concept ID:
C0424711
Finding
Interpupillary distance less than 2 SD below the mean (alternatively, the appearance of an decreased interpupillary distance or closely spaced eyes).
Cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
Vesicoureteral reflux 1
MedGen UID:
21852
Concept ID:
C0042580
Disease or Syndrome
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is characterized by the reflux of urine from the bladder into the ureters and sometimes into the kidneys. It is a risk factor for urinary tract infections. Primary VUR results from a developmental defect of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). In combination with intrarenal reflux, the resulting inflammatory reaction may result in renal injury or scarring, also called reflux nephropathy (RN). Extensive renal scarring impairs renal function and may predispose patients to hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency (summary by Lu et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Vesicoureteral Reflux A locus designated VUR1 maps to chromosome 1p13. VUR2 (610878) is caused by mutation in the ROBO2 gene (602431) on chromosome 3p12.3; VUR3 (613674) is caused by mutation in the SOX17 gene (610928) on chromosome 8q11.23; VUR4 (614317) maps to chromosome 5; VUR5 (614318) maps to chromosome 13; VUR6 (614319) maps to chromosome 18; VUR7 (615390) maps to chromosome 12; and VUR8 (615963) is caused by mutation in the TNXB gene (600985) on chromosome 6p21. A possible X-linked form has been reported (VURX; 314550).
Abnormality of the urinary system
MedGen UID:
867444
Concept ID:
C4021821
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the urinary system.
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
A tall and slim body build with increased arm span to height ratio (>1.05) and a reduced upper-to-lower segment ratio (<0.85), i.e., unusually long arms and legs. The extremities as well as the hands and feet are unusually slim.
Hip dislocation
MedGen UID:
42455
Concept ID:
C0019554
Injury or Poisoning
A congenital or traumatic abnormality in which the femoral head slips out of the acetabulum.
Prominent fingertip pads
MedGen UID:
322758
Concept ID:
C1835807
Finding
A soft tissue prominence of the ventral aspects of the fingertips. The term \
Hypotrophy of the small hand muscles
MedGen UID:
334705
Concept ID:
C1843228
Disease or Syndrome
Slender finger
MedGen UID:
387832
Concept ID:
C1857482
Finding
Digits are disproportionately narrow (reduced girth) for the hand/foot size or build of the individual.
Narrow palm
MedGen UID:
346628
Concept ID:
C1857632
Finding
For children from birth to 4 years of age, the palm width is more than 2 SD below the mean; for children from 4 to 16 years of age the palm width is below the 5th centile; or, the width of the palm appears disproportionately narrow for its length.
Positional foot deformity
MedGen UID:
870707
Concept ID:
C4025161
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot deformity resulting due to an abnormality affecting the muscle and soft tissue. In contrast if the bones of the foot are affected the term structural foot deformity applies.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Anatomical Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Bicuspid aortic valve
MedGen UID:
57436
Concept ID:
C0149630
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital anomaly in which the aortic valve has two leaflets. It is associated with mutations in the NOTCH1 gene or the SMAD6 gene, encoding neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 1 and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 6, respectively. It is a clinically heterogeneous condition, with a high incidence of aortic valve and ascending aortic complications requiring surgery.
Aortic dilatation
MedGen UID:
78118
Concept ID:
C0265004
Pathologic Function
Pulmonic stenosis
MedGen UID:
408291
Concept ID:
C1956257
Disease or Syndrome
A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract that can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis) or just below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis).
Abnormality of cardiovascular system morphology
MedGen UID:
892473
Concept ID:
C4049796
Congenital Abnormality
Any structural anomaly of the heart and great vessels.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
7064
Concept ID:
C0021288
Patient or Disabled Group
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
115900
Concept ID:
C0231246
Finding
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to \
Intrauterine growth retardation
MedGen UID:
473406
Concept ID:
C1386048
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Pyloric stenosis
MedGen UID:
18780
Concept ID:
C0034194
Pathologic Function
An abnormal narrowing of the pylorus.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Overfolded helix
MedGen UID:
325239
Concept ID:
C1837731
Finding
A condition in which the helix is folded over to a greater degree than normal. That is, excessive curling of the helix edge, whereby the free edge is parallel to the plane of the ear.
Anteverted ears
MedGen UID:
384047
Concept ID:
C1857055
Finding
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
349900
Concept ID:
C1860838
Finding
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Seizure Disorders
MedGen UID:
4506
Concept ID:
C0014544
Disease or Syndrome
A brain disorder characterized by episodes of abnormally increased neuronal discharge resulting in transient episodes of sensory or motor neurological dysfunction, or psychic dysfunction. These episodes may or may not be associated with loss of consciousness or convulsions.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Cognitive delay
MedGen UID:
351243
Concept ID:
C1864897
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70.
Conspicuously happy disposition
MedGen UID:
866682
Concept ID:
C4021029
Finding
An unusually happy aspect over time which can also may be observed during inappropriate situations that should be causing for example distress, fear or anger.
Cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
Vesicoureteral reflux 1
MedGen UID:
21852
Concept ID:
C0042580
Disease or Syndrome
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is characterized by the reflux of urine from the bladder into the ureters and sometimes into the kidneys. It is a risk factor for urinary tract infections. Primary VUR results from a developmental defect of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). In combination with intrarenal reflux, the resulting inflammatory reaction may result in renal injury or scarring, also called reflux nephropathy (RN). Extensive renal scarring impairs renal function and may predispose patients to hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency (summary by Lu et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Vesicoureteral Reflux A locus designated VUR1 maps to chromosome 1p13. VUR2 (610878) is caused by mutation in the ROBO2 gene (602431) on chromosome 3p12.3; VUR3 (613674) is caused by mutation in the SOX17 gene (610928) on chromosome 8q11.23; VUR4 (614317) maps to chromosome 5; VUR5 (614318) maps to chromosome 13; VUR6 (614319) maps to chromosome 18; VUR7 (615390) maps to chromosome 12; and VUR8 (615963) is caused by mutation in the TNXB gene (600985) on chromosome 6p21. A possible X-linked form has been reported (VURX; 314550).
Abnormality of the urinary system
MedGen UID:
867444
Concept ID:
C4021821
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the urinary system.
Hypotrophy of the small hand muscles
MedGen UID:
334705
Concept ID:
C1843228
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Eczematous rash
MedGen UID:
3968
Concept ID:
C0013595
Disease or Syndrome
A form of dermatitis characterized by red, itchy, scaly, or crusty patches that can be chronic or intermittent.(NICHD)
Hypernasal voice
MedGen UID:
99115
Concept ID:
C0454555
Finding
A type of speech characterized by the presence of an abnormally increased nasal airflow during speech.
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
A tall and slim body build with increased arm span to height ratio (>1.05) and a reduced upper-to-lower segment ratio (<0.85), i.e., unusually long arms and legs. The extremities as well as the hands and feet are unusually slim.
Hip dislocation
MedGen UID:
42455
Concept ID:
C0019554
Injury or Poisoning
A congenital or traumatic abnormality in which the femoral head slips out of the acetabulum.
Dysplasia of acetabulum
MedGen UID:
9258
Concept ID:
C0019555
Congenital Abnormality
A spectrum of hip abnormalities commonly presenting in infancy involving the relationship between the femoral head and the acetabulum and that includes subluxation or dislocation at rest or upon provocation.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormally increased curvature of the thoracic portion of the spine.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
21278
Concept ID:
C0037932
Finding
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
Spondylolisthesis
MedGen UID:
52470
Concept ID:
C0038016
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylolisthesis is defined as forward slipping of a vertebral body on the one below it. Spondylolysis is defined as a defect in the pars interarticularis without vertebral slipping (summary by Wiltse et al., 1975).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Sacral dimple
MedGen UID:
98428
Concept ID:
C0426848
Finding
A small hollow area or sinus present at birth and located just above the crease of the buttocks. In most cases, pilonidal dimples are benign and may just be accompanied by increased hair growth in the area.
Prominent fingertip pads
MedGen UID:
322758
Concept ID:
C1835807
Finding
A soft tissue prominence of the ventral aspects of the fingertips. The term \
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The ability of a joint to move beyond its normal range of motion.
Slender finger
MedGen UID:
387832
Concept ID:
C1857482
Finding
Digits are disproportionately narrow (reduced girth) for the hand/foot size or build of the individual.
Prominent metopic ridge
MedGen UID:
387953
Concept ID:
C1857949
Finding
Vertical bony ridge positioned in the midline of the forehead.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest (\
Vertebral fusion
MedGen UID:
480139
Concept ID:
C3278509
Anatomical Abnormality
A developmental defect leading to the union of two adjacent vertebrae.
Blepharophimosis
MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Congenital Abnormality
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures.
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Abnormality of the teeth
MedGen UID:
78084
Concept ID:
C0262444
Finding
An abnormality of the morphology of the tooth.
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Hypotelorism
MedGen UID:
96107
Concept ID:
C0424711
Finding
Interpupillary distance less than 2 SD below the mean (alternatively, the appearance of an decreased interpupillary distance or closely spaced eyes).
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Narrow palate
MedGen UID:
278045
Concept ID:
C1398312
Finding
Width of the palate more than 2 SD below the mean (objective) or apparently decreased palatal width (subjective).
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Pear-shaped nose
MedGen UID:
377912
Concept ID:
C1853482
Finding
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Bulbous nasal tip
MedGen UID:
383762
Concept ID:
C1855751
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Prominent metopic ridge
MedGen UID:
387953
Concept ID:
C1857949
Finding
Vertical bony ridge positioned in the midline of the forehead.
Cleft secondary palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
892653
Concept ID:
C4020893
A gap in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
Broad chin
MedGen UID:
868767
Concept ID:
C4023172
Finding
Increased width of the midpoint of the mandible (mental protuberance) and overlying soft tissue.
Eczematous rash
MedGen UID:
3968
Concept ID:
C0013595
Disease or Syndrome
A form of dermatitis characterized by red, itchy, scaly, or crusty patches that can be chronic or intermittent.(NICHD)
Xerosis
MedGen UID:
75479
Concept ID:
C0259817
Disease or Syndrome
Skin characterized by the lack of natural or normal moisture.
Sacral dimple
MedGen UID:
98428
Concept ID:
C0426848
Finding
A small hollow area or sinus present at birth and located just above the crease of the buttocks. In most cases, pilonidal dimples are benign and may just be accompanied by increased hair growth in the area.
Prominent fingertip pads
MedGen UID:
322758
Concept ID:
C1835807
Finding
A soft tissue prominence of the ventral aspects of the fingertips. The term \
Abnormality of hair texture
MedGen UID:
869296
Concept ID:
C4023722
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the texture of the hair.
Abnormality of hair pigmentation
MedGen UID:
869743
Concept ID:
C4024172
Finding
An abnormality of hair pigmentation (color).
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Myers KA, Mandelstam SA, Ramantani G, Rushing EJ, de Vries BB, Koolen DA, Scheffer IE
Epilepsia 2017 Jun;58(6):1085-1094. Epub 2017 Apr 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.13746. PMID: 28440867

Diagnosis

Myers KA, Mandelstam SA, Ramantani G, Rushing EJ, de Vries BB, Koolen DA, Scheffer IE
Epilepsia 2017 Jun;58(6):1085-1094. Epub 2017 Apr 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.13746. PMID: 28440867
Ciaccio C, Dordoni C, Ritelli M, Colombi M
Cytogenet Genome Res 2016;150(1):40-45. Epub 2016 Nov 17 doi: 10.1159/000452724. PMID: 27852077
Koolen DA, Pfundt R, Linda K, Beunders G, Veenstra-Knol HE, Conta JH, Fortuna AM, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Dugan S, Halbach S, Abdul-Rahman OA, Winesett HM, Chung WK, Dalton M, Dimova PS, Mattina T, Prescott K, Zhang HZ, Saal HM, Hehir-Kwa JY, Willemsen MH, Ockeloen CW, Jongmans MC, Van der Aa N, Failla P, Barone C, Avola E, Brooks AS, Kant SG, Gerkes EH, Firth HV, Õunap K, Bird LM, Masser-Frye D, Friedman JR, Sokunbi MA, Dixit A, Splitt M; DDD Study., Kukolich MK, McGaughran J, Coe BP, Flórez J, Nadif Kasri N, Brunner HG, Thompson EM, Gecz J, Romano C, Eichler EE, de Vries BB
Eur J Hum Genet 2016 May;24(5):652-9. Epub 2015 Aug 26 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2015.178. PMID: 26306646Free PMC Article

Therapy

Myers KA, Mandelstam SA, Ramantani G, Rushing EJ, de Vries BB, Koolen DA, Scheffer IE
Epilepsia 2017 Jun;58(6):1085-1094. Epub 2017 Apr 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.13746. PMID: 28440867

Prognosis

Ciaccio C, Dordoni C, Ritelli M, Colombi M
Cytogenet Genome Res 2016;150(1):40-45. Epub 2016 Nov 17 doi: 10.1159/000452724. PMID: 27852077

Clinical prediction guides

Myers KA, Mandelstam SA, Ramantani G, Rushing EJ, de Vries BB, Koolen DA, Scheffer IE
Epilepsia 2017 Jun;58(6):1085-1094. Epub 2017 Apr 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.13746. PMID: 28440867
Ciaccio C, Dordoni C, Ritelli M, Colombi M
Cytogenet Genome Res 2016;150(1):40-45. Epub 2016 Nov 17 doi: 10.1159/000452724. PMID: 27852077

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