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Items: 1 to 20 of 32

1.

Regular Insulin, Human

Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
162753
Concept ID:
C0795635
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Autoimmune disease

Your body's immune system protects you from disease and infection. But if you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Autoimmune diseases can affect many parts of the body. No one is sure what causes autoimmune diseases. They do tend to run in families. Women - particularly African-American, Hispanic-American, and Native-American women - have a higher risk for some autoimmune diseases. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases, and some have similar symptoms. This makes it hard for your health care provider to know if you really have one of these diseases, and if so, which one. Getting a diagnosis can be frustrating and stressful. Often, the first symptoms are fatigue, muscle aches and a low fever. The classic sign of an autoimmune disease is inflammation, which can cause redness, heat, pain and swelling. The diseases may also have flare-ups, when they get worse, and remissions, when symptoms get better or disappear. Treatment depends on the disease, but in most cases one important goal is to reduce inflammation. Sometimes doctors prescribe corticosteroids or other drugs that reduce your immune response.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
2135
Concept ID:
C0004364
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Primary adrenal insufficiency

Insufficient production of steroid hormones (primarily cortisol) by the adrenal glands as a result of a primary defect in the glands themselves. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
589758
Concept ID:
C0405580
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Addison disease

Autoimmune Addison disease affects the function of the adrenal glands, which are small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. It is classified as an autoimmune disorder because it results from a malfunctioning immune system that attacks the adrenal glands. As a result, the production of several hormones is disrupted, which affects many body systems.The signs and symptoms of autoimmune Addison disease can begin at any time, although they most commonly begin between ages 30 and 50. Common features of this condition include extreme tiredness (fatigue), nausea, decreased appetite, and weight loss. In addition, many affected individuals have low blood pressure (hypotension), which can lead to dizziness when standing up quickly; muscle cramps; and a craving for salty foods. A characteristic feature of autoimmune Addison disease is abnormally dark areas of skin (hyperpigmentation), especially in regions that experience a lot of friction, such as the armpits, elbows, knuckles, and palm creases. The lips and the inside lining of the mouth can also be unusually dark. Because of an imbalance of hormones involved in development of sexual characteristics, women with this condition may lose their underarm and pubic hair.Other signs and symptoms of autoimmune Addison disease include low levels of sugar (hypoglycemia) and sodium (hyponatremia) and high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) in the blood. Affected individuals may also have a shortage of red blood cells (anemia) and an increase in the number of white blood cells (lymphocytosis), particularly those known as eosinophils (eosinophilia).Autoimmune Addison disease can lead to a life-threatening adrenal crisis, characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, back or leg cramps, and severe hypotension leading to shock. The adrenal crisis is often triggered by a stressor, such as surgery, trauma, or infection.Individuals with autoimmune Addison disease or their family members can have another autoimmune disorder, most commonly autoimmune thyroid disease or type 1 diabetes.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
357032
Concept ID:
C1868690
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Autoimmune reaction

A specific humoral or cell-mediated immune response against autologous (self) antigens. An autoimmune process may produce or be caused by autoimmune disease and may be developmentally complex, not necessarily pathological, and possibly pervasive. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
105217
Concept ID:
C0443146
Pathologic Function
6.

Primary adrenal insufficiency

Your adrenal glands are just above your kidneys. The outside layer of these glands makes hormones that help your body respond to stress and regulate your blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make enough of these hormones. A problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, damaging your adrenal glands. Other causes include infections and cancer. Symptoms include. -Weight loss . -Muscle weakness . -Fatigue that gets worse over time . -Low blood pressure . -Patchy or dark skin . Lab tests can confirm that you have Addison disease. If you don't treat it, it can be fatal. You will need to take hormone pills for the rest of your life. If you have Addison disease, you should carry an emergency ID. It should say that you have the disease, list your medicines and say how much you need in an emergency. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
1324
Concept ID:
C0001403
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Hyperplasia

An abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or a tissue with consequent enlargement. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
43784
Concept ID:
C0020507
Pathologic Function
8.

Artificial antigen

small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
11692
Concept ID:
C0039115
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Immunologic Factor; Pharmacologic Substance
9.

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Graves disease

Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR; 603372) result in constitutive activation of the receptor and increased levels of thyroid hormone. Wilkin (1990) reviewed endocrine disorders of hormone excess and hormone deficiency resulting from receptor autoimmunity. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
6677
Concept ID:
C0018213
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Insulin

Insulin (51 aa, ~6 kDa) is encoded by the human INS gene. This protein is involved in the direct regulation of glucose metabolism. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
5827
Concept ID:
C0021641
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
12.

Aldosterone

A steroid hormone made by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland). It helps control the balance of water and salts in the kidney by keeping sodium in and releasing potassium from the body. Too much aldosterone can cause high blood pressure and a build-up of fluid in body tissues. Aldosterone is a type of mineralocorticoid hormone. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
1404
Concept ID:
C0002006
Hormone; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
13.

Amino acid

Any organic compounds containing amino (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups. In biochemistry, used to refer to the twenty-plus L-alpha-amino acids found in proteins. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
250
Concept ID:
C0002520
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Biologically Active Substance; Pharmacologic Substance
14.

Graves disease

An autoimmune disease where the thyroid is overactive, producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones (a serious metabolic imbalance known as hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis). This is caused by autoantibodies to the TSH-receptor (TSHR-Ab) that activate that TSH-receptor (TSHR), thereby stimulating thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and thyroid growth (causing a diffusely enlarged goiter). The resulting state of hyperthyroidism can cause a dramatic constellation of neuropsychological and physical signs and symptoms, which can severely compromise the patients. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
830708
Concept ID:
CN117539
Finding
15.

Liquid

MedGen UID:
725915
Concept ID:
C1304698
Finding
16.

Unable

A response indicating that an individual cannot do something. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
721425
Concept ID:
C1299582
Finding
17.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

A type of adrenal hyperplasia with congenital onset. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506200
Concept ID:
CN007259
Finding
18.

Diabetes mellitus

A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504609
Concept ID:
CN000766
Finding
19.

Type I diabetes mellitus

MedGen UID:
334999
Concept ID:
C1844664
20.

Adrenal hyperplasia

Enlargement of the adrenal gland. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
301220
Concept ID:
C1621895
Disease or Syndrome
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