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Items: 11

1.

Panic Disorder

MedGen UID:
910399
Concept ID:
CN240645
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Depression

MedGen UID:
881016
Concept ID:
CN236657
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Panic disorder 1

The DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) defines panic disorder as the spontaneous, unexpected occurrence of panic attacks followed by persistent concern, worry, and anxiety about having additional panic attacks. Panic attacks are defined as a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which at least 4 of 13 symptom criteria are met that develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes. Some of these criteria include cardiac palpitations, sweating, feelings of choking, fear of losing control, and fear of dying. Panic disorder is divided into panic disorder with or without accompanying agoraphobia. However, agoraphobia can also occur without panic disorder, and panic attacks can occur in the absence of panic disorder. Comorbidity with depressive and addictive disorders is frequent. Barlow et al. (1994) and Smoller and Tsuang (1998) noted that because the diagnostic criteria remain purely clinical, the nosology of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, is controversial and evolving. Therefore, it is difficult to do genetic studies because of the difficulty in delineating overlapping phenotypes within the broader context of anxiety disorders. For example, there may be overlap of panic with specific phobias, variable expressivity of panic and anxiety or depression, or phenocopies within a family. The terms 'anxiety neurosis' and 'phobic neurosis' were used in the past (before the DSM-III in 1980) to encompass all of these disorders. Smoller and Tsuang (1998) suggested that dimensional personality traits, such as shyness, behavioral inhibition, and neuroticism (see 607834), could be used to define an anxiety phenotype. Schumacher et al. (2011) provided a review of the genetics of panic disorder. They noted that there is high (80%) comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, including agoraphobia, mood disorders, substance abuse, and other anxiety disorders. Associated personality traits include anxiety sensitivity, behavioral inhibition, neuroticism, and harm avoidance. Women are more susceptible to development of the disorder, which has an average age of onset at 23.6 years. Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Panic Disorder Susceptibility to panic disorder-1 (PAND1) has been mapped to chromosome 13q. See also PAND2 (607853), mapped to chromosome 9, and PAND3 (609985), mapped to chromosome 4. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
401493
Concept ID:
C1868649
Disease or Syndrome; Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
4.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurring obsessions and/or compulsions and has been estimated to affect nearly 5 million people in the United States (Karno et al., 1988). Evidence for a strong genetic component in OCD comes from twin studies, family genetics studies, and segregation analyses, as reviewed by Alsobrook et al. (2002). Zhang et al. (2002) suggested that hoarding is likely to be an evolutionarily conserved trait that, in times of adversity, was associated with increased survival and reproductive fitness. However, extreme forms of this trait are associated with marked disability and poor response to treatment (Black et al., 1998; Mataix-Cols et al., 1999). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
320254
Concept ID:
C1834037
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Obsessive-compulsive behavior

Recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are severe enough to be time consuming (i.e., they take more than 1 hour a day) or cause marked distress or significant impairment (DSM-IV). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
109373
Concept ID:
C0600104
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
6.

Frequent

Coming at short intervals or in great quantities. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
87144
Concept ID:
C0332183
Temporal Concept
7.

Depression

Depression is a serious medical illness that involves the brain. It's more than just a feeling of being "down in the dumps" or "blue" for a few days. If you are one of the more than 20 million people in the United States who have depression, the feelings do not go away. They persist and interfere with your everyday life. Symptoms can include : -Sadness. -Loss of interest or pleasure in activities you used to enjoy. -Change in weight. -Difficulty sleeping or oversleeping. -Energy loss. -Feelings of worthlessness. -Thoughts of death or suicide. Depression is a disorder of the brain. There are a variety of causes, including genetic, environmental, psychological, and biochemical factors. Depression usually starts between the ages of 15 and 30, and is much more common in women. Women can also get postpartum depression after the birth of a baby. Some people get seasonal affective disorder in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants and talk therapy. Most people do best by using both. . NIH: National Institute of Mental Health.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
4229
Concept ID:
C0011581
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
8.

Genetic predisposition

A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
137259
Concept ID:
C0314657
Organism Attribute
9.

Mental disorder

Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including. -Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias. -Bipolar disorder. -Depression. -Mood disorders. -Personality disorders. -Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a role. Your life experiences, such as stress or a history of abuse, may also matter. Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a mental disorder. A mother's exposure to viruses or toxic chemicals while pregnant may play a part. Other factors may increase your risk, such as use of illegal drugs or having a serious medical condition like cancer. Medications and counseling can help many mental disorders. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
14047
Concept ID:
C0004936
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
10.

Claustrophobia

An irrational fear of being in a confined space. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
3103
Concept ID:
C0008909
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
11.

Panic disorder 3

MedGen UID:
400645
Concept ID:
C1864946
Disease or Syndrome
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