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1.

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Albuminuria

Increased concentration of albumin in the urine. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
1394
Concept ID:
C0001925
Finding
3.

Nephropathy

A nonspecific term referring to disease or damage of the kidneys. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
898017
Concept ID:
C1408258
Finding
4.

Type II diabetes mellitus

A type of diabetes mellitus initially characterized by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia and subsequently by glucose interolerance and hyperglycemia. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505874
Concept ID:
CN005268
Finding
5.

Diabetes mellitus

A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504609
Concept ID:
CN000766
Finding
6.

Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having prediabetes also increases your risk. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear slowly. Some people do not notice symptoms at all. The symptoms can include. -Being very thirsty. -Urinating often. -Feeling very hungry or tired. -Losing weight without trying. -Having sores that heal slowly. -Having blurry eyesight. Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Many people can manage their diabetes through healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing. Some people also need to take diabetes medicines. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
41523
Concept ID:
C0011860
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Nephropathy

You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. They are near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney there are about a million tiny structures called nephrons. They filter your blood. They remove wastes and extra water, which become urine. The urine flows through tubes called ureters. It goes to your bladder, which stores the urine until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys unable to remove wastes. Causes can include genetic problems, injuries, or medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a close family member with kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease damages the nephrons slowly over several years. Other kidney problems include. -Cancer. -Cysts. -Stones. -Infections. Your doctor can do blood and urine tests to check if you have kidney disease. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
9635
Concept ID:
C0022658
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Regular Insulin, Human

Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
162753
Concept ID:
C0795635
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
9.

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. That limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including. -Coronary artery disease. These arteries supply blood to your heart. When they are blocked, you can suffer angina or a heart attack. -Carotid artery disease. These arteries supply blood to your brain. When they are blocked you can suffer a stroke. -Peripheral arterial disease. These arteries are in your arms, legs and pelvis. When they are blocked, you can suffer from numbness, pain and sometimes infections. Atherosclerosis usually doesn't cause symptoms until it severely narrows or totally blocks an artery. Many people don't know they have it until they have a medical emergency. A physical exam, imaging, and other diagnostic tests can tell if you have it. Medicines can slow the progress of plaque buildup. Your doctor may also recommend procedures such as angioplasty to open the arteries, or surgery on the coronary or carotid arteries. Lifestyle changes can also help. These include following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, quitting smoking, and managing stress. . NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
13948
Concept ID:
C0004153
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Diagnosis

Description:The source act is intended to help establish the presence of a (an adverse) situation described by the target act. This is not limited to diseases but can apply to any adverse situation or condition of medical or technical nature.  [from HL7]

MedGen UID:
8354
Concept ID:
C0011900
Finding
11.

Insulin

Insulin (51 aa, ~6 kDa) is encoded by the human INS gene. This protein is involved in the direct regulation of glucose metabolism. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
5827
Concept ID:
C0021641
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
12.

Low density serum cholesterol level

MedGen UID:
776850
Concept ID:
CN185700
Finding
13.

History of previous events

The aggregate of past events; the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present; a record or narrative description of past events. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
389153
Concept ID:
C2004062
Finding
14.

Type I diabetes mellitus

MedGen UID:
334999
Concept ID:
C1844664
15.

Chronic

Slow, creeping onset, slow progress and long continuance of disease manifestations. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
104657
Concept ID:
C0205191
Temporal Concept
16.

Abnormality of the kidney

An abnormality of the kidney. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
78593
Concept ID:
C0266292
Congenital Abnormality
17.

Onset

The age group in which disease manifestations appear. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
64519
Concept ID:
C0206132
Quantitative Concept
18.

Diabetes mellitus type 1

The type of diabetes mellitus called IDDM is a disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of IDDM have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classical phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
41522
Concept ID:
C0011854
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Retinopathy

The retina is a layer of tissue in the back of your eye that senses light and sends images to your brain. In the center of this nerve tissue is the macula. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving and seeing fine detail. Retinal disorders affect this vital tissue. They can affect your vision, and some can be serious enough to cause blindness. Examples are. -Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys your sharp, central vision. -Diabetic eye disease. -Retinal detachment - a medical emergency, when the retina is pulled away from the back of the eye. -Retinoblastoma - cancer of the retina. It is most common in young children. -Macular pucker - scar tissue on the macula. -Macular hole - a small break in the macula that usually happens to people over 60. -Floaters - cobwebs or specks in your field of vision. NIH: National Eye Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
11209
Concept ID:
C0035309
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Male Urogenital Diseases

Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
318601
Concept ID:
C1720894
Disease or Syndrome
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