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Items: 4

1.

Potter syndrome

A rare, lethal congenital malformation characterized by bilateral renal agenesis and the absence or decreased volume of amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios). The presence of oligohydramnios gives rise to congenital anomalies that include hypoplastic lungs, lower extremities abnormalities, and characteristic facial features (low-set ears, widely separated eyes, nose flattening, and receding chin). Newborn infants usually die of respiratory failure. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
472617
Concept ID:
C0178426
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Polycystic kidney disease, adult type

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is generally a late-onset multisystem disorder characterized by: bilateral renal cysts; cysts in other organs including the liver, seminal vesicles, pancreas, and arachnoid membrane; vascular abnormalities including intracranial aneurysms, dilatation of the aortic root, and dissection of the thoracic aorta; mitral valve prolapse; and abdominal wall hernias. Renal manifestations include hypertension, renal pain, and renal insufficiency. Approximately 50% of individuals with ADPKD have end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by age 60 years. The prevalence of liver cysts, the most common extrarenal manifestation of ADPKD, increases with age and may have been underestimated by ultrasound studies. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is higher in those with a positive family history of aneurysms or subarachnoid hemorrhage (22%) than in those without such a family history (6%). Mitral valve prolapse, the most common valvular abnormality, occurs in up to 25% of affected individuals. Substantial variability in severity of renal disease and other extrarenal manifestations occurs even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
88404
Concept ID:
C0085413
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
3.

Congenital hepatic fibrosis

Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a developmental disorder of the portobiliary system characterized histologically by defective remodeling of the ductal plate (ductal plate malformation; DPM), abnormal branching of the intrahepatic portal veins, and progressive fibrosis of the portal tracts. CHF may or may not be associated with macroscopic cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Clinical findings include enlarged, abnormally shaped liver, relatively well-preserved hepatocellular function, and portal hypertension (PH) resulting in splenomegaly, hypersplenism, and gastroesophageal varices. Pulmonary hypertension (portopulmonary hypertension) and vascular shunts in the pulmonary parenchyma (hepatopulmonary syndrome), complications of PH, can also be seen rarely. Most frequently CHF is associated with ciliopathies (disorders of the primary cilia) that have associated renal disease, the so-called hepatorenal fibrocystic diseases (FCDs). Although the hepatorenal FCDs are currently classified by phenotype, it is likely that gene-based classification will be quite different in the future because of the tremendous genetic and phenotypic overlap between these disorders. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
40449
Concept ID:
C0009714
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Caroli disease

A rare congenital disorder characterised by multifocal, segmental dilatation of the large intrahepatic bile ducts. It may present at any age and predominantly affects females. Less than 250 cases have been described worldwide. Caroli disease is characterised by bile ductal ectasia without other apparent hepatic abnormalities. It presents with recurrent bacterial cholangitis, biliary stones causing biliary pain or episodes of pancreatitis. The more common variant of this disease, named Caroli syndrome, is characterised by dilatations of the large bile duct associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis. The aetiology of Caroli disease is unknown and its occurrence is sporadic, whereas Caroli syndrome is generally inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
57924
Concept ID:
C0162510
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
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