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Items: 12

1.

Colorectal Cancer

The colon and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of the large intestine. It is common in both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more likely to get it if you have colorectal polyps, a family history of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, eat a diet high in fat, or smoke. Symptoms of colorectal cancer include. -Diarrhea or constipation. -A feeling that your bowel does not empty completely. -Blood (either bright red or very dark) in your stool. -Stools that are narrower than usual. -Frequent gas pains or cramps, or feeling full or bloated. -Weight loss with no known reason. -Fatigue. -Nausea or vomiting. Because you may not have symptoms at first, it's important to have screening tests. Everyone over 50 should get screened. Tests include colonoscopy and tests for blood in the stool. Treatments for colorectal cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination. Surgery can usually cure it when it is found early. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
287122
Concept ID:
C1527249
Neoplastic Process
2.

Seprafilm

MedGen UID:
206410
Concept ID:
C0765326
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Colorectal cancer

MedGen UID:
945535
Concept ID:
CN262507
Finding
4.

Colorectal cancer.

MedGen UID:
910619
Concept ID:
CN240758
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Colorectal cancer

MedGen UID:
808161
Concept ID:
CN221574
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Familial colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is common in both men and women. In addition to lifestyle and environmental risk factors, gene defects can contribute to an inherited predisposition to CRC. CRC is caused by changes in different molecular pathogenic pathways, such as chromosomal instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and microsatellite instability. Chromosome instability is the most common alteration and is present in almost 85% of all cases (review by Schweiger et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Colorectal Cancer Mutations in a single gene result in a marked predisposition to colorectal cancer in 2 distinct syndromes: familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; 175100) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; see 120435). FAP is caused by mutations in the APC gene (611731), whereas HNPCC is caused by mutations in several genes, including MSH2 (609309), MLH1 (120436), PMS1 (600258), PMS2 (600259), MSH6 (600678), TGFBR2 (190182), and MLH3 (604395). Epigenetic silencing of MSH2 results in a form of HNPCC (see HNPCC8, 613244). Other colorectal cancer syndromes include autosomal recessive adenomatous polyposis (608456), which is caused by mutations in the MUTYH gene (604933), and oligodontia-colorectal cancer syndrome (608615), which is caused by mutations in the AXIN2 gene (604025). The CHEK2 gene (604373) has been implicated in susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Finnish patients. A germline mutation in the PLA2G2A gene (172411) was identified in a patient with colorectal cancer. Germline susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer have also been identified. CRCS1 (608812) is conferred by mutation in the GALNT12 gene (610290) on chromosome 9q22; CRCS2 (611469) maps to chromosome 8q24; CRCS3 (612229) is conferred by variation in the SMAD7 gene (602932) on chromosome 18; CRCS4 (601228) is conferred by variation on 15q that causes increased and ectopic expression of the GREM1 gene (603054); CRCS5 (612230) maps to chromosome 10p14; CRCS6 (612231) maps to chromosome 8q23; CRCS7 (612232) maps to chromosome 11q23; CRCS8 (612589) maps to chromosome 14q22; CRCS9 (612590) maps to 16q22; CRCS10 (612591) is conferred by mutation in the POLD1 gene (174761) on chromosome 19q13; CRCS11 (612592) maps to chromosome 20p12; and CRCS12 (615083) is conferred by mutation in the POLE gene (174762) on chromosome 12q24. Somatic mutations in many different genes, including KRAS (190070), PIK3CA (171834), BRAF (164757), CTNNB1 (116806), FGFR3 (134934), AXIN2 (604025), AKT1 (164730), MCC (159350), MYH11 (160745), PARK2 (602544), and RNF43 (612482), have been identified in colorectal cancer. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
430218
Concept ID:
CN029768
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Carcinoma of colon

Lynch syndrome, caused by a germline pathogenic variant in a mismatch repair gene and associated with tumors exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI), is characterized by an increased risk for colon cancer and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, urinary tract, brain, and skin. In individuals with Lynch syndrome the following life time risks for cancer are seen: 52%-82% for colorectal cancer (mean age at diagnosis 44-61 years); 25%-60% for endometrial cancer in women (mean age at diagnosis 48-62 years); 6% to 13% for gastric cancer (mean age at diagnosis 56 years); and 4%-12% for ovarian cancer (mean age at diagnosis 42.5 years; approximately 30% are diagnosed before age 40 years). The risk for other Lynch syndrome-related cancers is lower, though substantially increased over general population rates. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
147065
Concept ID:
C0699790
Neoplastic Process
8.

Small bowel obstruction

Blockage of the normal flow of the small intestinal contents. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
115984
Concept ID:
C0235329
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Intestinal obstruction

An intestinal obstruction occurs when food or stool cannot move through the intestines. The obstruction can be complete or partial. There are many causes. The most common are adhesions, hernias, cancers, and certain medicines. . Symptoms include. -Severe abdominal pain or cramping . -Vomiting . -Bloating . -Loud bowel sounds . -Swelling of the abdomen . -Inability to pass gas . -Constipation. A complete intestinal obstruction is a medical emergency. It often requires surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
43933
Concept ID:
C0021843
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Obstruction

Blockage of the normal flow of the contents of an anatomical passageway. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
18135
Concept ID:
C0028778
Pathologic Function
11.

Icodextrin Solution

An isosmotic solution containing icodextrin, a starch-derived, water-soluble glucose polymer, used in peritoneal dialysis and for the prevention of adhesion after surgery. Due to its iso-osmotic nature and inability to cross the peritoneal membrane, the icodextrin solution, upon administration into the peritoneal cavity, is able to exert osmotic pressure. This allows for the removal of excess fluids and waste products in dialysis patients. In addition, icodextrin can provide a barrier between tissue surfaces when administered during surgery. This physically separates tissues, prevents adhesion after surgery and promotes wound healing. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
858409
Concept ID:
C3898815
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
12.

icodextrin

MedGen UID:
153932
Concept ID:
C0538727
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
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