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Xerostomia

MedGen UID:
22735
Concept ID:
C0043352
Disease or Syndrome; Finding; Finding
Synonyms: Decreased salivary flow; Dry mouth; Dry mouth syndrome; Reduced salivation
SNOMED CT: Aptyalism (87715008); Xerostomia (87715008); Absent salivary secretion (87715008); Aptyalia (87715008); Asialia (87715008); Dry mouth (87715008); Reduced salivation (300268000); Salivary hyposecretion (56893005); Clinical xerostomia (87715008); Hyposecretion of salivary gland (56893005); Hyposalivation (56893005); Hypoactive salivary flow (56893005); Inadequate salivary flow (56893005)
 
HPO: HP:0000217

Definition

Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, upset or under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can be uncomfortable and can lead to serious health problems. Symptoms of dry mouth include. -A sticky, dry feeling in the mouth. -Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking. -A burning feeling in the mouth. -A dry feeling in the throat. -Cracked lips. -A dry, rough tongue. -Mouth sores. -An infection in the mouth. Dry mouth is not a normal part of aging. Causes include some medicines, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and nerve damage. Salivary gland diseases, Sjogren's syndrome, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes can also cause dry mouth. Treatment depends on the cause. Things you can do include sipping water, avoiding drinks with caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol, and chewing sugarless gum or sucking on sugarless hard candy. NIH: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.  [from MedlinePlus]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVXerostomia

Conditions with this feature

Primary erythromelalgia
MedGen UID:
8688
Concept ID:
C0014805
Disease or Syndrome
SCN9A-related inherited erythromelalgia (SCN9A-related IEM) is characterized by recurrent attacks of bilateral and symmetric intense pain, redness, warmth, and swelling involving the feet and, less frequently, the hands. SCN9A-related IEM is not associated with an organic disease. Manifestations may vary within a family. Onset is usually in childhood or adolescence but has been recognized in infants and adults. At onset, episodes are triggered by warmth; other precipitating factors include: exercise, tight shoes, wearing socks, alcohol, spicy foods, and other vasodilating agents. In advanced disease, symptoms may occur many times a day or become constant. Some individuals have allodynia (pain evoked by a normally innocuous stimulus) and hyperalgesia (increased sensitivity to a painful stimulus). Episodes may be disabling, interfere with sleep, and severely limit normal activities such as walking, participation in sports, wearing socks and shoes, and attending school or going to work.
Prune belly syndrome
MedGen UID:
18718
Concept ID:
C0033770
Congenital Abnormality
In its rare complete form, 'prune belly' syndrome comprises megacystis (massively enlarged bladder) with disorganized detrusor muscle, cryptorchidism, and thin abdominal musculature with overlying lax skin (summary by Weber et al., 2011).
Congenital absence of salivary gland
MedGen UID:
57641
Concept ID:
C0158667
Congenital Abnormality
Autosomal dominant aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands is a rare condition characterized by irritable eyes, epiphora (constant tearing), and xerostomia (dryness of the mouth), which increases risk of dental erosion, dental caries, periodontal disease, and oral infections. ALSG has variable expressivity, and affected individuals may have aplasia or hypoplasia of the lacrimal, parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands and absence of the lacrimal puncta. In affected individuals, the misdiagnosis is often made of the more prevalent disorder Sjogren syndrome (270150), an autoimmune condition characterized by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Both sporadic and familial cases of ALSG have been described (summary by Entesarian et al., 2005).
Levy-Hollister syndrome
MedGen UID:
78545
Concept ID:
C0265269
Disease or Syndrome
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder mainly affecting lacrimal glands and ducts, salivary glands and ducts, ears, teeth, and distal limb segments (summary by Rohmann et al., 2006).
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome
MedGen UID:
129128
Concept ID:
C0282207
Disease or Syndrome
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis, alopecia, onychodystrophy, skin hyperpigmentation, and diarrhea. It is associated with high morbidity (summary by Sweetser et al., 2012).
Sjögren syndrome
MedGen UID:
282890
Concept ID:
C1527336
Disease or Syndrome
Sjogren syndrome is an autoimmune disease that mainly affects the exocrine glands. It is clinically characterized by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia (Goransson et al., 2006). See 200400 for association of Sjogren syndrome with achalasia in sisters.
Pancreatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, and sicca complex
MedGen UID:
340461
Concept ID:
C1850080
Disease or Syndrome
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
343663
Concept ID:
C1851841
Disease or Syndrome
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347666
Concept ID:
C1858562
Disease or Syndrome
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome-3 (ECC3) is an autosomal dominant disorder comprising absence of the central parts of the hands and feet, resulting in split-hand/foot malformation, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (summary by Maas et al., 1996). Also see EEC1 (129900), which has been mapped to chromosome 7q11.
Achalasia, familial esophageal
MedGen UID:
395436
Concept ID:
C1860213
Disease or Syndrome
Achalasia is a primary motor disorder of the esophagus. It is characterized by aperistalsis and a failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax due to a loss of inhibitory nitrinergic neurons in the esophageal myenteric plexus. Patients typically present with dysphagia, regurgitation, retrosternal pain, and substantial weight loss (Farrokhi and Vaezi, 2007; summary by Gockel et al., 2010).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Billings M, Dye BA, Iafolla T, Baer AN, Grisius M, Alevizos I
EBioMedicine 2016 Oct;12:270-279. Epub 2016 Sep 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.09.005. PMID: 27639822Free PMC Article
Soo Roh S, Wook Kim D, Jin Baek H
AJR Am J Roentgenol 2016 Nov;207(5):1077-1081. Epub 2016 Aug 9 doi: 10.2214/AJR.15.15776. PMID: 27504709
Han G, Ko SJ, Kim J, Oh JY, Park JW, Kim J
J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Apr 22;182:160-9. Epub 2016 Feb 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.014. PMID: 26902832
Viljakainen S, Nykänen I, Ahonen R, Komulainen K, Suominen AL, Hartikainen S, Tiihonen M
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2016 Jun;44(3):232-8. Epub 2016 Jan 6 doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12210. PMID: 26739925
Chen YJ, Chen SC, Wang CP, Fang YY, Lee YH, Lou PJ, Ko JY, Chiang CC, Lai YH
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2016 May;25(3):440-8. Epub 2014 Dec 11 doi: 10.1111/ecc.12270. PMID: 25495287

Diagnosis

Niklander S, Veas L, Barrera C, Fuentes F, Chiappini G, Marshall M
Braz Oral Res 2017 Jan 16;31(0):e14. doi: 10.1590/1807-3107BOR-2017.vol31.0014. PMID: 28099580
Okamoto A, Miyachi H, Tanaka K, Chikazu D, Miyaoka H
J Clin Pharm Ther 2016 Dec;41(6):684-688. Epub 2016 Sep 24 doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12449. PMID: 27663579
Lee J, Koh JH, Kwok SK, Park SH
J Korean Med Sci 2016 May;31(5):724-8. Epub 2016 Mar 28 doi: 10.3346/jkms.2016.31.5.724. PMID: 27134493Free PMC Article
Tanasiewicz M, Hildebrandt T, Obersztyn I
Adv Clin Exp Med 2016 Jan-Feb;25(1):199-206. PMID: 26935515
Alcázar Navarrete B, Gómez-Moreno G, Aguilar-Salvatierra A, Guardia J, Romero Palacios PJ
J Oral Pathol Med 2015 Apr;44(4):273-7. Epub 2014 Aug 26 doi: 10.1111/jop.12228. PMID: 25154765

Therapy

Soo Roh S, Wook Kim D, Jin Baek H
AJR Am J Roentgenol 2016 Nov;207(5):1077-1081. Epub 2016 Aug 9 doi: 10.2214/AJR.15.15776. PMID: 27504709
Han G, Ko SJ, Kim J, Oh JY, Park JW, Kim J
J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Apr 22;182:160-9. Epub 2016 Feb 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.014. PMID: 26902832
Viljakainen S, Nykänen I, Ahonen R, Komulainen K, Suominen AL, Hartikainen S, Tiihonen M
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2016 Jun;44(3):232-8. Epub 2016 Jan 6 doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12210. PMID: 26739925
Lopez-Jornet P, Lucero Berdugo M, Fernandez-Pujante A, C CF, Lavella C Z, A PF, J SR, Silvestre FJ
Acta Odontol Scand 2016;74(3):224-8. Epub 2015 Oct 16 doi: 10.3109/00016357.2015.1099730. PMID: 26473793
Chen YJ, Chen SC, Wang CP, Fang YY, Lee YH, Lou PJ, Ko JY, Chiang CC, Lai YH
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2016 May;25(3):440-8. Epub 2014 Dec 11 doi: 10.1111/ecc.12270. PMID: 25495287

Prognosis

Tanasiewicz M, Hildebrandt T, Obersztyn I
Adv Clin Exp Med 2016 Jan-Feb;25(1):199-206. PMID: 26935515
Takagi Y, Sumi M, Nakamura H, Sato S, Kawakami A, Nakamura T
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2016 Feb;55(2):237-45. Epub 2015 Sep 2 doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kev278. PMID: 26338664
Castelli J, Simon A, Louvel G, Henry O, Chajon E, Nassef M, Haigron P, Cazoulat G, Ospina JD, Jegoux F, Benezery K, de Crevoisier R
Radiat Oncol 2015 Jan 9;10:6. doi: 10.1186/s13014-014-0318-z. PMID: 25573091Free PMC Article
Kałużny J, Wierzbicka M, Nogala H, Milecki P, Kopeć T
Otolaryngol Pol 2014 Jan-Feb;68(1):1-14. Epub 2013 Sep 17 doi: 10.1016/j.otpol.2013.09.002. PMID: 24484943
Fortin I, Fortin B, Lambert L, Clavel S, Alizadeh M, Filion EJ, Soulières D, Bélair M, Guertin L, Nguyen-Tan PF
Head Neck 2014 Sep;36(9):1343-8. Epub 2013 Dec 17 doi: 10.1002/hed.23463. PMID: 24038408

Clinical prediction guides

Niklander S, Veas L, Barrera C, Fuentes F, Chiappini G, Marshall M
Braz Oral Res 2017 Jan 16;31(0):e14. doi: 10.1590/1807-3107BOR-2017.vol31.0014. PMID: 28099580
Billings M, Dye BA, Iafolla T, Baer AN, Grisius M, Alevizos I
EBioMedicine 2016 Oct;12:270-279. Epub 2016 Sep 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.09.005. PMID: 27639822Free PMC Article
Lee J, Koh JH, Kwok SK, Park SH
J Korean Med Sci 2016 May;31(5):724-8. Epub 2016 Mar 28 doi: 10.3346/jkms.2016.31.5.724. PMID: 27134493Free PMC Article
Han G, Ko SJ, Kim J, Oh JY, Park JW, Kim J
J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Apr 22;182:160-9. Epub 2016 Feb 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.014. PMID: 26902832
Lopez-Jornet P, Lucero Berdugo M, Fernandez-Pujante A, C CF, Lavella C Z, A PF, J SR, Silvestre FJ
Acta Odontol Scand 2016;74(3):224-8. Epub 2015 Oct 16 doi: 10.3109/00016357.2015.1099730. PMID: 26473793

Recent systematic reviews

Yang WF, Liao GQ, Hakim SG, Ouyang DQ, Ringash J, Su YX
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016 Mar 1;94(3):503-11. Epub 2015 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.11.012. PMID: 26867879
Cheng CQ, Xu H, Liu L, Wang RN, Liu YT, Li J, Zhou XK
J Am Dent Assoc 2016 Apr;147(4):236-43. Epub 2015 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2015.09.014. PMID: 26563850
Fox NF, Xiao C, Sood AJ, Lovelace TL, Nguyen SA, Sharma A, Day TA
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Jul;120(1):22-8. Epub 2015 Mar 25 doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2015.03.007. PMID: 26093680
Plemons JM, Al-Hashimi I, Marek CL; American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs.
J Am Dent Assoc 2014 Aug;145(8):867-73. doi: 10.14219/jada.2014.44. PMID: 25082939
Sood AJ, Fox NF, O'Connell BP, Lovelace TL, Nguyen SA, Sharma AK, Hornig JD, Day TA
Oral Oncol 2014 Feb;50(2):77-83. Epub 2013 Nov 1 doi: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.10.010. PMID: 24189058

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