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Items: 4

1.

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young

The term Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) was initially used for patients diagnosed with fasting hyperglycemia that could be treated without insulin for more than two years, where the initial diagnosis was made at a young age (under 25 years). Thus, MODY combines characteristics of type 1 diabetes (young age at diagnosis) and type 2 diabetes (less insulin dependence than type 1 diabetes). The term MODY is now most often used to refer to a group of monogenic diseases with these characteristics. Here, the term is used to describe hyperglycemia diagnosed at a young age with no or minor insulin dependency, no evidence of insulin resistence, and lack of evidence of autoimmune destruction of the beta cells. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
428119
Concept ID:
CN004347
Finding
2.

Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia short limb-hand type

MedGen UID:
338595
Concept ID:
C1849011
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Maturity onset diabetes mellitus in young

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young is an autosomal dominant form of diabetes typically occurring before 25 years of age and caused by primary insulin secretion defects. Despite its low prevalence, MODY is not a single entity but represents genetic, metabolic, and clinical heterogeneity (Vaxillaire and Froguel, 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of MODY MODY1 (125850) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4-alpha gene (HNF4A; 600281) on chromosome 20. MODY2 (125851) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the glucokinase gene (GCK; 138079) on chromosome 7. MODY3 (600496) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene (HNF1A; 142410) on chromosome 12q24.2. MODY4 (606392) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein-1 gene (PDX1; 600733) on chromosome 13q12.1. MODY5 (137920) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding hepatic transcription factor-2 (TCF2; 189907) on chromosome 17cen-q21.3. MODY6 (606394) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the NEUROD1 gene (601724) on chromosome 2q32. MODY7 (610508) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KLF11 gene (603301) on chromosome 2p25. MODY8 (609812), or diabetes-pancreatic exocrine dysfunction syndrome, is caused by heterozygous mutation in the CEL gene (114840) on chromosome 9q34. MODY9 (612225) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the PAX4 gene (167413) on chromosome 7q32. MODY10 (613370) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the insulin gene (INS; 176730) on chromosome 11p15.5. MODY11 (613375) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the BLK gene (191305) on chromosome 8p23. MODY13 (616329) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KCNJ11 gene (600937) on chromosome 11p15. MODY14 (616511) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the APPL1 gene (604299) on chromosome 3p14. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
87433
Concept ID:
C0342276
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2

MODY is a form of NIDDM (125853) characterized by monogenic autosomal dominant transmission and early age of onset. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MODY, see 606391. In a review of the various forms of MODY, Fajans et al. (2001) stated that glucokinase-related MODY2 is a common form of the disorder, especially in children with mild hyperglycemia and in women with gestational diabetes and a family history of diabetes. It has been described in persons of all racial and ethnic groups. More than 130 MODY-associated mutations have been found in the glucokinase gene. Heterozygous mutations in glucokinase are associated with a mild form of nonprogressive hyperglycemia that is usually asymptomatic at diagnosis and is treated with diet alone. The mild fasting hyperglycemia with blood glucose concentrations of 110 to 145 mg/deciliter and impaired glucose tolerance in most affected carriers may be recognized by biochemical testing at a young age, possibly as early as birth. About 50% of the women who are carriers may have gestational diabetes. Less than 50% of the carriers have overt diabetes; many of those who do are obese or elderly. Two percent of MODY2 patients require insulin therapy. Diabetes-associated complications are rare in this form of MODY. MODY was found in 13% of the Caucasian NIDDM families collected in France by Froguel et al. (1991). Gidh-Jain et al. (1993) found that GCK mutations accounted for 56% of MODY families in France. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
330729
Concept ID:
C1841962
Disease or Syndrome
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