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Items: 19

1.

Polyubiquitination

The type of ubiquitin modification determines the functional consequences for the modified protein. Polyubiquitination, which involves chains of usually four or more ubiquitins, typically seen on cytoplasmic proteins, serve as an efficient signal for recognition by the proteasome and subsequent protein degradation. (From PMID and NCI) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
269466
Concept ID:
C1514216
Molecular Function
2.

Neoplasm

A malignant tumor at the original site of growth. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
227011
Concept ID:
C1306459
Neoplastic Process
3.

Caspase Activation

Caspase Activation involves induction of the activity of intracellular cysteine endopeptidase family members kept inactive by mitochondrial surface proteins (BcL-2 Family) and involved in initial signaling and downstream proteolytic cleavages (at P1 aspartic acids) in inflammation and apoptotic cell death when signals block BcL-2 function and activators initiate caspase cascades. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
223891
Concept ID:
C1159825
Molecular Function
4.

Oncolysis

The destruction of tumor cells or a reduction in swelling. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
90709
Concept ID:
C0333516
Neoplastic Process
5.

Fetal alcohol syndrome

A condition occurring in FETUS or NEWBORN due to in utero ETHANOL exposure when mother consumed alcohol during pregnancy. It is characterized by a cluster of irreversible BIRTH DEFECTS including abnormalities in physical, mental, and behavior development (such as FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; MENTAL RETARDATION; ATTENTION DEFICIT AND DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR DISORDERS) with varied degree of severity in an individual. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
8820
Concept ID:
C0015923
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Duane syndrome

Duane syndrome is a strabismus syndrome characterized by congenital non-progressive horizontal ophthalmoplegia (inability to move the eyes) primarily affecting the abducens nucleus and nerve and its innervated extraocular muscle, the lateral rectus muscle. At birth, affected infants have restricted ability to move the affected eye(s) outward (abduction) and/or inward (adduction). In addition, the globe retracts into the orbit with attempted adduction, accompanied by narrowing of the palpebral fissure. Most individuals with Duane syndrome have strabismus in primary gaze but can use a compensatory head position to align the eyes, and thus can preserve single binocular vision and avoid diplopia. Individuals with Duane syndrome who lack binocular vision are at risk for amblyopia. Approximately 70% of individuals with Duane syndrome have isolated Duane syndrome (i.e., they do not have other detected congenital anomalies). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
4413
Concept ID:
C0013261
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Ubiquitination

Ubiquitin is a family of widely distributed proteins found in all eukaryotes that contain a highly conserved sequence of 76 amino acids identical in organisms from humans to insects. It participates in diverse cellular functions by conjugation to other proteins through its carboxy terminus. Ubiquitination is associated with many highly regulated biological events including protein degradation, chromatin remodelling, heat shock, cell cycle progression, differentiation, antigen presentation, retrovirus assembly, apoptosis, signal transduction, transcriptional activation, biological clocks, receptor down regulation, and endocytosis. Protein ubiquitination regulates the half-lives of many proteins by targeting them for degradation. Newly discovered families of ubiquitination and deubiquitination enzymes participate in these processes. Ubiquitination enzymes may provide new therapeutic targets and ways of intervention in many human diseases. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
276919
Concept ID:
C1519751
Molecular Function
8.

Biosynthesis, Peptide

The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
272130
Concept ID:
C1327133
Molecular Function
9.

Protein Modification, Translational

Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
260537
Concept ID:
C1449566
Molecular Function
10.

Proteasome inhibitor

Any substance that inhibits the proteasome complex, an enzyme complex responsible for degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Inhibition of proteasome activity and ubiquitin-proteasome mediated proteolysis results in an accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which may result in the disruption of cellular processes, cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
252947
Concept ID:
C1443643
Pharmacologic Substance
11.

Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
226255
Concept ID:
C1258062
Molecular Function
12.

Protein Cleavage

Protein Cleavage involves hydrolysis by proteolytic enzymes of specific peptide bond(s), forming smaller polypeptides in the target protein during maturation or modification of functional activity. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108934
Concept ID:
C0597304
Molecular Function
13.

Genetic translation

Protein synthesis is the group of processes that are involved in generation of mature protein molecules. Although protein synthesis may involve translation alone in many cases, in others, it involves also protein folding, integration of prosthetic groups, glycosylation, methylation, phosphorylation, lipidation and any other process that may be involved in maturation of the polypeptide to the biologically active form. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108933
Concept ID:
C0597295
Molecular Function
14.

Post-Translational Modification

The enzymatic processing of a polypeptide chain after translation from messenger RNA and after peptide bond formation has occurred. Examples include glycosylation, acylation, limited proteolysis, phosphorylation, isoprenylation.(On-line Medical Dictionary) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
46159
Concept ID:
C0033666
Molecular Function
15.

Protease preparation

A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in the interior of a polypeptide chain or protein molecule. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
45389
Concept ID:
C0030946
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Enzyme; Pharmacologic Substance
16.

Enzyme activation

Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
41819
Concept ID:
C0014429
Molecular Function
17.

Peptide hydrolase inhibitor

Any substance that inhibits a protease, an enzyme that breaks peptide bonds. Proteases are required for many cell processes and inhibition of proteases can inhibit viral replication, inflammatory responses, proliferation, and tumor growth. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
18701
Concept ID:
C0033607
Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Enzyme inhibitor

Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
8652
Concept ID:
C0014432
Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine Aldehyde

MedGen UID:
46898
Concept ID:
C0105729
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Pharmacologic Substance
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