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1.

Premature ovarian failure

Premature ovarian failure is clearly a heterogeneous disorder. The terms 'hypergonadotropic ovarian failure' and 'hypergonadotropic ovarian dysgenesis' (see ODG1, 233300) have been used to indicate a group of disorders in which amenorrhea associated with elevated levels of serum gonadotropins occurs long before the age of 40 years (Coulam, 1982). Cytogenetic studies of X-chromosome aberrations have suggested that it is mainly the long arm of the X chromosome that is involved in defects of ovulation (Bione et al., 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Premature Ovarian Failure Mutations in genes identified within a region defined as POF2 (Xq13.3-q21.1) have been found to cause other forms of POF: POF2A (300511) by mutation in the DIAPH2 gene (300108) and POF2B (300604) by mutation in the POF1B gene (300603). See also POF3 (608996), caused by mutation in the FOXL2 gene (605597) on chromosome 3q22; POF4 (see 300510), caused by mutation in the BMP15 gene (300247) on chromosome Xp11; POF5 (611548), caused by mutation in the NOBOX gene (610934) on chromosome 7q35; POF6 (612310), caused by mutation in the FIGLA gene (608697) on chromosome 2p13; POF7 (612964), caused by mutation in the NR5A1 gene (184757) on chromosome 9q33; POF8 (615723), caused by mutation in the STAG3 gene (608489) on chromosome 7q22; POF9 (615724), caused by mutation in the HFM1 gene (615684) on chromosome 1p22; POF10 (612885), caused by mutation in the MCM8 gene (608187) on chromosome 20p12; POF11 (616946), caused by mutation in the ERCC6 gene (609413) on chromosome 10q11; POF12 (616947), caused by mutation in the SYCE1 gene (611486) on chromosome 10q26; and POF13 (617442), caused by mutation in the MSH5 gene (603382) on chromosome 6p22. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
38820
Concept ID:
C0085215
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Tremor

Tremors are unintentional trembling or shaking movements in one or more parts of your body. Most tremors occur in the hands. You can also have arm, head, face, vocal cord, trunk, and leg tremors. Tremors are most common in middle-aged and older people, but anyone can have them. The cause of tremors is a problem in the parts of the brain that control muscles in the body or in specific parts of the body, such as the hands. They commonly occur in otherwise healthy people. They may also be caused by problems such as. -Parkinson's disease. -Dystonia. -Multiple sclerosis. -Stroke. -Traumatic brain injury. -Alcohol abuse and withdrawal. -Certain medicines. Some forms are inherited and run in families. Others have no known cause. . There is no cure for most tremors. Treatment to relieve them depends on their cause. In many cases, medicines and sometimes surgical procedures can reduce or stop tremors and improve muscle control. Tremors are not life threatening. However, they can be embarrassing and make it hard to perform daily tasks. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
21635
Concept ID:
C0040822
Sign or Symptom
3.

Ataxia

A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to smoothly perform the elements of a voluntary movement in the appropriate order and speed. With dyssynergia, a voluntary movement appears broken down into its component parts. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
13945
Concept ID:
C0004134
Sign or Symptom
4.

Fragile X syndrome

FMR1-related disorders include fragile X syndrome, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized by moderate intellectual disability in affected males and mild intellectual disability in affected females. Because FMR1 pathogenic variants are complex alterations involving non-classic gene-disrupting alterations (trinucleotide repeat expansion) and abnormal gene methylation, affected individuals occasionally have an atypical presentation with an IQ above 70, the traditional demarcation denoting intellectual disability (previously referred to as mental retardation). Males with an FMR1 full mutation accompanied by aberrant methylation may have a characteristic appearance (large head, long face, prominent forehead and chin, protruding ears), connective tissue findings (joint laxity), and large testes after puberty. Behavioral abnormalities, sometimes including autism spectrum disorder, are common. FXTAS occurs in males (and some females) who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor. FMR1-related POI (age at cessation of menses <40 years) occurs in approximately 20% of females who have an FMR1 premutation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
8912
Concept ID:
C0016667
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
5.

Intellectual functioning disability

Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
7544
Concept ID:
C0025362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
6.

Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a rare genetic disease associated with mild to severe intellectual deficit that may be associated with behavioral disorders and characteristic physical features. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
891648
Concept ID:
CN206445
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Primary ovarian failure

Malfunctioning of the ovaries such that a girl never begins menstruation. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504864
Concept ID:
CN001445
Finding
8.

Tremor

MedGen UID:
472309
Concept ID:
CN130231
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Intellectual disability

Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
334384
Concept ID:
C1843367
Finding
10.

Fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome

FMR1-related disorders include fragile X syndrome, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized by moderate intellectual disability in affected males and mild intellectual disability in affected females. Because FMR1 pathogenic variants are complex alterations involving non-classic gene-disrupting alterations (trinucleotide repeat expansion) and abnormal gene methylation, affected individuals occasionally have an atypical presentation with an IQ above 70, the traditional demarcation denoting intellectual disability (previously referred to as mental retardation). Males with an FMR1 full mutation accompanied by aberrant methylation may have a characteristic appearance (large head, long face, prominent forehead and chin, protruding ears), connective tissue findings (joint laxity), and large testes after puberty. Behavioral abnormalities, sometimes including autism spectrum disorder, are common. FXTAS occurs in males (and some females) who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor. FMR1-related POI (age at cessation of menses <40 years) occurs in approximately 20% of females who have an FMR1 premutation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Ataxia

Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- oder overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Sign or Symptom
12.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Is it hard for your child to sit still? Does your child act without thinking first? Does your child start but not finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems in school, at home and in social situations. ADHD is more common in boys than girls. It affects 3-5 percent of all American children. The main features of ADHD are. -Inattention. -Hyperactivity. -Impulsivity. No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. It sometimes runs in families, so genetics may be a factor. There may also be environmental factors. A complete evaluation by a trained professional is the only way to know for sure if your child has ADHD. Treatment may include medicine to control symptoms, therapy, or both. Structure at home and at school is important. Parent training may also help. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
13.

Rubral tremor

Rubral tremor is characterized by a slow coarse tremor at rest that is exacerbated by postural adjustments and by guided voluntary movements. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
196693
Concept ID:
C0750940
Disease or Syndrome; Sign or Symptom
14.

Limb ataxia

A kind of ataxia that affects movements of the extremities. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
196692
Concept ID:
C0750937
Finding; Finding
15.

Sex-linked hereditary disorder

Disorders occurring in either sex and which are transmitted by genes in the sex chromosomes. [from PSY]

MedGen UID:
183658
Concept ID:
C0949683
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Inborn genetic diseases

Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
181981
Concept ID:
C0950123
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Incoordination

MedGen UID:
141714
Concept ID:
C0520966
Sign or Symptom
18.

Genetic predisposition

A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
137259
Concept ID:
C0314657
Organism Attribute
19.

Limb tremor

MedGen UID:
115980
Concept ID:
C0235081
Finding; Sign or Symptom
20.

Asterixis

A clinical sign indicating a lapse of posture and is usually manifest by a bilateral flapping tremor at the wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and hip joints. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
115916
Concept ID:
C0232766
Sign or Symptom
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