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Onychomycosis

MedGen UID:
11825
Concept ID:
C0040261
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Fungus, Nail; Nail Fungus; Onychomycoses; Tinea Unguium
SNOMED CT: Onychomycosis (414941008); Fungal infection of nail (414941008); Ringworm of nail (414941008)
 
HPO: HP:0012203

Definition

A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS. [from MeSH]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVOnychomycosis

Conditions with this feature

Familial chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
MedGen UID:
90958
Concept ID:
C0341024
Disease or Syndrome
Familial candidiasis is an inherited tendency to develop infections caused by a type of fungus called Candida. Affected individuals typically have infections of the skin, the nails, and the moist lining of body cavities (mucous membranes). These infections are recurrent and persistent, which means they come back repeatedly and can last a long time. This pattern of infection is called chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.Candida is commonly present on the skin and on the mucous membranes, and in most people usually causes no health problems. However, certain medications (such as antibiotics and corticosteroids) and other factors can lead to occasional overgrowth of Candida (candidiasis) in the mouth (where it is known as thrush) or in the vagina. These episodes, commonly called yeast infections, usually last only a short time before being cleared by a healthy immune system.Most people with familial candidiasis have chronic or recurrent yeast infections that begin in early childhood. Skin infections lead to a rash with crusty, thickened patches; when these patches occur on the scalp, they can cause loss of hair in the affected area (scarring alopecia). Candidiasis of the nails can result in thick, cracked, and discolored nails and swelling and redness of the surrounding skin. Thrush and gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, constipation, or diarrhea are common in affected individuals. Women with familial candidiasis can develop frequent vaginal yeast infections, and infants can have yeast infections on the skin that cause persistent diaper rash.Depending on the genetic change involved in this condition, some affected individuals are at risk for developing systemic candidiasis, a more severe condition in which the infection spreads through the bloodstream to various organs including the brain and the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Systemic candidiasis can be life-threatening.Chronic or recurrent yeast infections can occur in people without familial candidiasis. Some individuals experience recurrent candidiasis as part of a general susceptibility to infections because their immune systems are impaired by a disease such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), medications, or other factors. Other individuals have syndromes such as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) or autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) that include a tendency to develop candidiasis along with other signs and symptoms affecting various organs and systems of the body.
Candidiasis, familial, 2
MedGen UID:
347128
Concept ID:
C1859353
Disease or Syndrome
Candidiasis, familial, 8
MedGen UID:
811541
Concept ID:
C3714992
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and oral and genital mucosae with Candida albicans, and sometimes by staphylococcal skin infections (summary by Boisson et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial candidiasis, see CANDF1 (114580).
Candidiasis, familial, 9
MedGen UID:
906897
Concept ID:
C4225324
Disease or Syndrome

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ranawaka RR, de Silva SH
Int J Dermatol 2017 Feb;56(2):202-208. Epub 2016 Nov 4 doi: 10.1111/ijd.13426. PMID: 27813064
Oz Y, Qoraan I, Oz A, Balta I
Int J Dermatol 2017 Jan;56(1):68-74. Epub 2016 Sep 26 doi: 10.1111/ijd.13402. PMID: 27667305
Eba M, Njunda AL, Mouliom RN, Kwenti ET, Fuh AN, Nchanji GT, Atashili J
BMC Res Notes 2016 Nov 22;9(1):494. doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-2302-1. PMID: 27876085Free PMC Article
Chadeganipour M, Mohammadi R
J Clin Lab Anal 2016 Nov;30(6):1013-1020. Epub 2016 Apr 13 doi: 10.1002/jcla.21973. PMID: 27790797
Kim MS, Jung JY, Cho EB, Park EJ, Kim KH, Kim KJ
J Cosmet Laser Ther 2016 Oct;18(6):317-22. Epub 2016 Apr 22 doi: 10.3109/14764172.2016.1157372. PMID: 27010770

Diagnosis

Li M, Chen Z, Yin S, Xue R, Chen Z, Huang H, Wei L, Lu C, De Hoog GS, Lai W, Feng P
Mycoses 2017 Mar;60(3):161-165. Epub 2016 Sep 12 doi: 10.1111/myc.12555. PMID: 27618806
Solís-Arias MP, García-Romero MT
Int J Dermatol 2017 Feb;56(2):123-130. Epub 2016 Sep 9 doi: 10.1111/ijd.13392. PMID: 27612431
Eba M, Njunda AL, Mouliom RN, Kwenti ET, Fuh AN, Nchanji GT, Atashili J
BMC Res Notes 2016 Nov 22;9(1):494. doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-2302-1. PMID: 27876085Free PMC Article
Gupta C, Jongman M, Das S, Snehaa K, Bhattacharya SN, Seyedmousavi S, van Diepeningen AD
Mycopathologia 2016 Aug;181(7-8):497-504. Epub 2016 May 2 doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-0014-7. PMID: 27138574
Bombace F, Iovene MR, Galdiero M, Martora F, Nicoletti GF, D'Andrea M, Della Pepa ME, Vitiello M
Mycoses 2016 Sep;59(9):558-65. Epub 2016 Apr 8 doi: 10.1111/myc.12504. PMID: 27061613

Therapy

Ranawaka RR, de Silva SH
Int J Dermatol 2017 Feb;56(2):202-208. Epub 2016 Nov 4 doi: 10.1111/ijd.13426. PMID: 27813064
Li M, Chen Z, Yin S, Xue R, Chen Z, Huang H, Wei L, Lu C, De Hoog GS, Lai W, Feng P
Mycoses 2017 Mar;60(3):161-165. Epub 2016 Sep 12 doi: 10.1111/myc.12555. PMID: 27618806
Eba M, Njunda AL, Mouliom RN, Kwenti ET, Fuh AN, Nchanji GT, Atashili J
BMC Res Notes 2016 Nov 22;9(1):494. doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-2302-1. PMID: 27876085Free PMC Article
Chadeganipour M, Mohammadi R
J Clin Lab Anal 2016 Nov;30(6):1013-1020. Epub 2016 Apr 13 doi: 10.1002/jcla.21973. PMID: 27790797
Kim MS, Jung JY, Cho EB, Park EJ, Kim KH, Kim KJ
J Cosmet Laser Ther 2016 Oct;18(6):317-22. Epub 2016 Apr 22 doi: 10.3109/14764172.2016.1157372. PMID: 27010770

Prognosis

Eichenfield LF, Friedlander SF
J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Feb 1;16(2):105-109. PMID: 28300851
Zhang J, Lu S, Huang H, Li X, Cai W, Ma J, Xi L
Lasers Med Sci 2016 Sep;31(7):1391-6. Epub 2016 Jun 23 doi: 10.1007/s10103-016-1990-z. PMID: 27339057
Bhatta AK, Keyal U, Huang X, Zhao JJ
J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 May;74(5):916-23. Epub 2016 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2015.12.002. PMID: 26874820
Cozzani E, Agnoletti AF, Speziari S, Schiavetti I, Zotti M, Persi A, Drago F, Parodi A
Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016 Apr;16(4):486-91. Epub 2015 May 15 doi: 10.1111/ggi.12496. PMID: 25981058
Hajar T, Fernández-Martínez R, Moreno-Coutiño G, Vásquez Del Mercado E, Arenas R
Rev Iberoam Micol 2016 Jan-Mar;33(1):34-7. Epub 2015 Feb 17 doi: 10.1016/j.riam.2014.10.002. PMID: 25818752

Clinical prediction guides

Gilaberte Y, Robres MP, Frías MP, García-Doval I, Rezusta A, Aspiroz C
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Feb;31(2):347-354. Epub 2016 Aug 12 doi: 10.1111/jdv.13842. PMID: 27515478
Eba M, Njunda AL, Mouliom RN, Kwenti ET, Fuh AN, Nchanji GT, Atashili J
BMC Res Notes 2016 Nov 22;9(1):494. doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-2302-1. PMID: 27876085Free PMC Article
Bombace F, Iovene MR, Galdiero M, Martora F, Nicoletti GF, D'Andrea M, Della Pepa ME, Vitiello M
Mycoses 2016 Sep;59(9):558-65. Epub 2016 Apr 8 doi: 10.1111/myc.12504. PMID: 27061613
Hajar T, Fernández-Martínez R, Moreno-Coutiño G, Vásquez Del Mercado E, Arenas R
Rev Iberoam Micol 2016 Jan-Mar;33(1):34-7. Epub 2015 Feb 17 doi: 10.1016/j.riam.2014.10.002. PMID: 25818752
Papini M, Piraccini BM, Difonzo E, Brunoro A
Mycoses 2015 Nov;58(11):659-64. Epub 2015 Sep 28 doi: 10.1111/myc.12396. PMID: 26412300

Recent systematic reviews

Velasquez-Agudelo V, Cardona-Arias JA
BMC Infect Dis 2017 Feb 22;17(1):166. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2258-3. PMID: 28222676Free PMC Article
Bhatta AK, Keyal U, Wang XL
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2016 Sep;15:228-35. Epub 2016 Jul 28 doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2016.07.010. PMID: 27477248
Gupta AK, Simpson FC, Heller DF
J Dermatolog Treat 2016;27(2):167-72. Epub 2015 Aug 13 doi: 10.3109/09546634.2015.1066479. PMID: 26270468
Gupta AK, Sibbald RG, Andriessen A, Belley R, Boroditsky A, Botros M, Chelin R, Gulliver W, Keast D, Raman M
J Cutan Med Surg 2015 Sep-Oct;19(5):440-9. Epub 2015 Apr 9 doi: 10.1177/1203475415581310. PMID: 25857439
Gupta AK, Daigle D, Foley KA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015 Jun;29(6):1039-44. Epub 2014 Nov 21 doi: 10.1111/jdv.12873. PMID: 25413984

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