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1.

Meckel syndrome

MedGen UID:
833593
Concept ID:
CN229569
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Meckel syndrome type 1

Meckel syndrome, also known as Meckel-Gruber syndrome, is a severe pleiotropic autosomal recessive developmental disorder caused by dysfunction of primary cilia during early embryogenesis. There is extensive clinical variability and controversy as to the minimum diagnostic criteria. Early reports, including that of Opitz and Howe (1969) and Wright et al. (1994), stated that the classic triad of Meckel syndrome comprises (1) cystic renal disease; (2) a central nervous system malformation, most commonly occipital encephalocele; and (3) polydactyly, most often postaxial. However, based on a study of 67 patients, Salonen (1984) concluded that the minimum diagnostic criteria are (1) cystic renal disease; (2) CNS malformation, and (3) hepatic abnormalities, including portal fibrosis or ductal proliferation. In a review of Meckel syndrome, Logan et al. (2011) stated that the classic triad first described by Meckel (1822) included occipital encephalocele, cystic kidneys, and fibrotic changes to the liver. Genetic Heterogeneity of Meckel Syndrome See also MKS2 (603194), caused by mutation in the TMEM216 gene (613277) on chromosome 11q13; MKS3 (607361), caused by mutation in the TMEM67 gene (609884) on chromosome 8q; MKS4 (611134), caused by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on chromosome 12q; MKS5 (611561), caused by mutation in the RPGRIP1L gene (610937) on chromosome 16q12.2; MKS6 (612284), caused by mutation in the CC2D2A gene (612013) on chromosome 4p15; MKS7 (267010), caused by mutation in the NPHP3 (608002) gene on chromosome 3q22; MKS8 (613885), caused by mutation in the TCTN2 gene (613846) on chromosome 12q24.31; MKS9 (614209), caused by mutation in the B9D1 gene (614144) on chromosome 17p11.2; MKS10 (614175), caused by mutation in the B9D2 gene (611951) on chromosome 19q13; MKS11 (615397), caused by mutation in the TMEM231 gene (614949) on chromosome 16q23; and MKS12 (616258), caused by mutation in the KIF14 gene (611279) on chromosome 1q31. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
811346
Concept ID:
C3714506
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Joubert syndrome

Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by congenital malformation of the brainstem and agenesis or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis leading to an abnormal respiratory pattern, nystagmus, hypotonia, ataxia, and delay in achieving motor milestones. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
799198
Concept ID:
CN205134
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Meckel-Gruber syndrome

A rare, lethal, autosomal recessive inherited syndrome characterized by pulmonary hypoplasia, central nervous system malformations, and hepatic malformations. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
120513
Concept ID:
C0265215
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
5.

Familial aplasia of the vermis

Classic Joubert syndrome is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. The designation Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) is used to describe individuals with JS who have additional findings including retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98464
Concept ID:
C0431399
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Jeune thoracic dystrophy

Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, also known as Jeune syndrome, is an inherited disorder of bone growth characterized by a narrow chest, short ribs, shortened bones in the arms and legs, short stature, and extra fingers and toes (polydactyly). Additional skeletal abnormalities can include unusually shaped collarbones (clavicles) and pelvic bones, and and cone-shaped ends of the long bones in the arms and legs. Many infants with this condition are born with an extremely narrow, bell-shaped chest that can restrict the growth and expansion of the lungs. Life-threatening problems with breathing result, and people with asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy may live only into infancy or early childhood. However, in people who survive beyond the first few years, the narrow chest and related breathing problems can improve with age.Some people with asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy are born with less severe skeletal abnormalities and have only mild breathing difficulties, such as rapid breathing or shortness of breath. These individuals may live into adolescence or adulthood. After infancy, people with this condition may develop life-threatening kidney (renal) abnormalities that cause the kidneys to malfunction or fail. Heart defects and a narrowing of the airway (subglottic stenosis) are also possible. Other, less common features of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy include liver disease, fluid-filled sacs (cysts) in the pancreas, dental abnormalities, and an eye disease called retinal dystrophy that can lead to vision loss.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
78548
Concept ID:
C0265275
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
7.

Ciliopathy

MedGen UID:
852061
Concept ID:
CN234683
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Cerebellar hypoplasia

Underdevelopment of the cerebellum. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504799
Concept ID:
CN001210
Finding
9.

Thyroid hormone plasma membrane transport defect

MedGen UID:
396060
Concept ID:
C1861101
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome

Typical Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is characterized by preaxial polydactyly or mixed pre- and postaxial polydactyly, true widely spaced eyes, and macrocephaly. Individuals with mild GCPS may have subtle craniofacial findings. The mild end of the GCPS spectrum is a continuum with preaxial polysyndactyly type IV and crossed polydactyly (preaxial polydactyly of the feet and postaxial polydactyly of the hands plus syndactyly of fingers 3-4 and toes 1-3). Individuals with severe GCPS can have seizures, hydrocephalus, and intellectual disability. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120531
Concept ID:
C0265306
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
11.

Abnormality of the nervous system

An abnormality of the nervous system that is present at birth or detected in the neonatal period. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
105425
Concept ID:
C0497552
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
12.

Neural tube defect

Neural tube defects are the second most common type of birth defect after congenital heart defects. The 2 most common NTDs are open spina bifida, also known as spina bifida cystica (SBC) or myelomeningocele, and anencephaly (206500) (Detrait et al., 2005). Spina bifida occulta (SBO), a bony defect of the spine covered by normal skin, is a mild form of spina bifida that is often asymptomatic. The term 'spinal dysraphia' refers to both SBC and SBO (Botto et al., 1999; Fineman et al., 1982). The most severe neural tube defect, craniorachischisis (CRN), leaves the neural tube open from the midbrain or rostral hindbrain to the base of the spine (summary by Robinson et al., 2012). Neural tube defects represent a complex trait with multifactorial etiology encompassing both genetic and environmental components (summary by Bartsch et al., 2012 and Lei et al., 2014). An X-linked form of spina bifida has been suggested; see 301410. See also folate-sensitive neural tube defects (601634), which are caused by genes involved in folate metabolism. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
18009
Concept ID:
C0027794
Finding
13.

Polycystic kidney dysplasia

The presence of multiple cysts in both kidneys. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
9639
Concept ID:
C0022680
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
14.

Nephropathy

Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fists. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney about a million tiny structures called nephrons filter blood. They remove waste products and extra water, which become urine. The urine flows through tubes called ureters to your bladder, which stores the urine until you go to the bathroom. . Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys unable to remove wastes. Causes can include genetic problems, injuries, or medicines. You are at greater risk for kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a close family member with kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease damages the nephrons slowly over several years. Other kidney problems include:. -Cancer. -Cysts. -Stones. -Infections. Your doctor can run tests to find out if you have kidney disease. If your kidneys fail completely, a kidney transplant or dialysis can replace the work your kidneys normally do. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
9635
Concept ID:
C0022658
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Multiple congenital anomalies

MedGen UID:
7806
Concept ID:
C0000772
Congenital Abnormality
16.

Cystic kidney disease

A fluid filled sac in the kidney. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
7215
Concept ID:
C0022679
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Hernia

A hernia happens when part of an internal organ or tissue bulges through a weak area of muscle. Most hernias are in the abdomen. There are several types of hernias, including. - Inguinal, in the groin. This is the the most common type. - Umbilical, around the belly button. - Incisional, through a scar. - Hiatal, a small opening in the diaphragm that allows the upper part of the stomach to move up into the chest. - Congenital diaphragmatic, a birth defect that needs surgery. Hernias are common. They can affect men, women, and children. A combination of muscle weakness and straining, such as with heavy lifting, might contribute. Some people are born with weak abdominal muscles and may be more likely to get a hernia. Treatment is usually surgery to repair the opening in the muscle wall. Untreated hernias can cause pain and health problems.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
6816
Concept ID:
C0019270
Anatomical Abnormality; Finding
18.

Disorder of eye

Some eye problems are minor and don't last long. But some can lead to a permanent loss of vision. Common eye problems include. -Refractive errors. -Cataracts - clouded lenses. -Glaucoma - a disorder caused by damage to the optic nerve. -Retinal disorders - problems with the nerve layer at the back of the eye. -Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision. -Diabetic eye problems. -Conjunctivitis - an infection also known as pinkeye. Your best defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and treatment could prevent vision loss. See an eye care professional right away if you have a sudden change in vision, if everything looks dim, or if you see flashes of light. Other symptoms that need quick attention are pain, double vision, fluid coming from the eye, and inflammation. NIH: National Eye Institute .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
5092
Concept ID:
C0015397
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Congenital anomaly of eye

Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
4623
Concept ID:
C0015393
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
20.

Diastematomyelia

A rare congenital abnormality in which the spinal cord is split in half by fibrous or bony tissue. It may present as an isolated phenomenon or in association with spina bifida. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
3801
Concept ID:
C0011999
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
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