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Bowel incontinence

MedGen UID:
41977
Concept ID:
C0015732
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Anal incontinence; Fecal incontinence; Loss of bowel control
SNOMED CT: Bowel incontinence (72042002); Involuntary stool (72042002); Bowels: incontinent (72042002); Incontinent of feces (72042002); Incontinent of faeces (72042002); Incontinence of feces (72042002)
 
HPO: HP:0002607

Definition

Bowel incontinence is the inability to control your bowels. When you feel the urge to have a bowel movement, you may not be able to hold it until you get to a toilet. Millions of Americans have this problem. It affects people of all ages - children and adults. It is more common in women and older adults. It is not a normal part of aging. Causes include. -Constipation. -Damage to muscles or nerves of the anus and rectum. -Diarrhea. -Pelvic support problems. Treatments include changes in diet, medicines, bowel training, or surgery. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Normal pressure hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
42526
Concept ID:
C0020258
Disease or Syndrome
A form of hydrocephalus characterized by enlarged cerebral ventricles and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure upon lumbar puncture.
Adrenoleukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
57667
Concept ID:
C0162309
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. Three main phenotypes are seen in affected males: The childhood cerebral form manifests most commonly between ages four and eight years. It initially resembles attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity; progressive impairment of cognition, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor function follow the initial symptoms and often lead to total disability within two years. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) manifests most commonly in the late twenties as progressive paraparesis, sphincter disturbances, sexual dysfunction, and often, impaired adrenocortical function; all symptoms are progressive over decades. "Addison disease only" presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency between age two years and adulthood and most commonly by age 7.5 years, without evidence of neurologic abnormality; however, some degree of neurologic disability (most commonly AMN) usually develops later. Approximately 20% of females who are carriers develop neurologic manifestations that resemble AMN but have later onset (age =35 years) and milder disease than do affected males.
Pelvic organ prolapse, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
209090
Concept ID:
C0877015
Disease or Syndrome
Female pelvic floor disorders, including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), urinary incontinence, and stress urinary incontinence, affect over one-third of adult women (Bump and Norton, 1998). These disorders are characterized by weakening of the tissues supporting and anchoring the pelvic organs, which can affect both structure and function of the vagina, uterus, bladder, anus, and intestines.
Fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1-related disorders include fragile X syndrome, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized by moderate intellectual disability in affected males and mild intellectual disability in affected females. Because FMR1 pathogenic variants are complex alterations involving non-classic gene-disrupting alterations (trinucleotide repeat expansion) and abnormal gene methylation, affected individuals occasionally have an atypical presentation with an IQ above 70, the traditional demarcation denoting intellectual disability (previously referred to as mental retardation). Males with an FMR1 full mutation accompanied by aberrant methylation may have a characteristic appearance (large head, long face, prominent forehead and chin, protruding ears), connective tissue findings (joint laxity), and large testes after puberty. Behavioral abnormalities, sometimes including autism spectrum disorder, are common. FXTAS occurs in males (and some females) who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor. FMR1-related POI (age at cessation of menses <40 years) occurs in approximately 20% of females who have an FMR1 premutation.
CAMOS syndrome
MedGen UID:
376048
Concept ID:
C1847114
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 15
MedGen UID:
341387
Concept ID:
C1849128
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-15 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive spasticity primarily affecting the lower limbs. It is a complex form of spastic paraplegia, associated with other neurologic dysfunction, including variable mental retardation, hearing and visual defects, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Goizet et al., 2009).
Huntington disease-like 3
MedGen UID:
347622
Concept ID:
C1858114
Disease or Syndrome
As its name suggests, a Huntington disease-like (HDL) syndrome is a condition that resembles Huntington disease. Researchers have described four HDL syndromes, designated Huntington disease-like 1 (HDL1) through Huntington disease-like 4 (HDL4). These progressive brain disorders are characterized by uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and loss of thinking ability. HDL syndromes occur in people with the characteristic features of Huntington disease who do not have a mutation in HD, the gene typically associated with that disorder.HDL1, HDL2, and HDL4 usually appear in early to mid-adulthood, although they can begin earlier in life. The first signs and symptoms of these conditions often include irritability, emotional problems, small involuntary movements, poor coordination, and trouble learning new information or making decisions. Many affected people develop involuntary jerking or twitching movements known as chorea. As the disease progresses, these abnormal movements become more pronounced. Affected individuals may develop problems with walking, speaking, and swallowing. People with these disorders also experience changes in personality and a decline in thinking and reasoning abilities. Individuals with an HDL syndrome can live for a few years to more than a decade after signs and symptoms begin.HDL3 begins much earlier in life than most of the other HDL syndromes (usually around age 3 or 4). Affected children experience a decline in thinking ability, difficulties with movement and speech, and seizures. Because HDL3 has a somewhat different pattern of signs and symptoms and a different pattern of inheritance, researchers are unsure whether it belongs in the same category as the other HDL syndromes.
Amyotrophic dystonic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
354871
Concept ID:
C1862956
Disease or Syndrome
Christianson syndrome
MedGen UID:
394455
Concept ID:
C2678194
Disease or Syndrome
Christianson syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental and progressive mental retardation syndrome characterized by microcephaly, impaired ocular movements, severe global developmental delay, developmental regression, hypotonia, abnormal movements, and early-onset seizures of variable types. Female carriers may be mildly affected (summary by Schroer et al., 2010 and Pescosolido et al., 2014).
Spastic paraplegia 54, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
761341
Concept ID:
C3539495
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-54 is a complicated form of spastic paraplegia, a neurodegenerative disorder affecting fibers of the corticospinal tract. Affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and early-onset spasticity of the lower limbs. Brain MRI shows a thin corpus callosum and periventricular white matter lesions. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows an abnormal lipid peak (summary by Schuurs-Hoeijmakers et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see 270800.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Meyer I, Tang Y, Szychowski JM, Richter HE
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2015 Nov-Dec;21(6):339-42. doi: 10.1097/SPV.0000000000000189. PMID: 26506162Free PMC Article
Bliss DZ, Westra BL, Savik K, Hou Y
Home Healthc Nurse 2014 Jan;32(1):31-8. doi: 10.1097/NHH.0000000000000012. PMID: 24326472
Moty C, Barberger-Gateau P, De Sarasqueta AM, Teare GF, Henrard JC
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2003 Jun;51(3):327-38. PMID: 13130213
Vogel LC, Krajci KA, Anderson CJ
J Spinal Cord Med 2002 Summer;25(2):106-16. PMID: 12137214
Nixon HH
Prog Pediatr Surg 1984;17:105-14. PMID: 6425969

Diagnosis

Weaver LK, Deru K
Undersea Hyperb Med 2016 Mar-Apr;43(2):175-80. PMID: 27265995
Bergquist-Beringer S, Gajewski BJ
Adv Skin Wound Care 2011 Sep;24(9):404-14. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000405215.49921.a9. PMID: 21860263
Westra BL, Savik K, Oancea C, Choromanski L, Holmes JH, Bliss D
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2011 Jan-Feb;38(1):77-87. PMID: 21287773Free PMC Article
Davies MC, Liao LM, Wilcox DT, Woodhouse CR, Creighton SM
BJU Int 2010 Aug;106(3):398-404. Epub 2009 Nov 3 doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.09031.x. PMID: 19888969
Nixon HH
Prog Pediatr Surg 1984;17:105-14. PMID: 6425969

Therapy

Benfield J, Maknojia A, Epstein F
Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2016 Mar;95(3):e30-3. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000411. PMID: 26495817
Khajuria B, Khajuria M, Agrawal Y
Am J Ther 2016 Jul-Aug;23(4):e1072-3. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000270. PMID: 25933141
Balarabe SA, Adamu MD, Watila MM, Jiya N
BMJ Case Rep 2015 Sep 3;2015 doi: 10.1136/bcr-2014-207362. PMID: 26338241
Wagg AS, Newman DK, Leichsenring K, van Houten P
PLoS One 2014;9(8):e104129. Epub 2014 Aug 14 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104129. PMID: 25121511Free PMC Article
VAISBERG M, MICHAEL C, SAUNDERS JC
Am J Psychiatry 1959 Apr;115(10):938-9. doi: 10.1176/ajp.115.10.938. PMID: 13637264

Prognosis

Ziakas PD, Joyce N, Zacharioudakis IM, Zervou FN, Besdine RW, Mor V, Mylonakis E
Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Aug;95(31):e4187. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004187. PMID: 27495022Free PMC Article
Bergquist-Beringer S, Gajewski BJ
Adv Skin Wound Care 2011 Sep;24(9):404-14. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000405215.49921.a9. PMID: 21860263
Westra BL, Savik K, Oancea C, Choromanski L, Holmes JH, Bliss D
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2011 Jan-Feb;38(1):77-87. PMID: 21287773Free PMC Article
Moty C, Barberger-Gateau P, De Sarasqueta AM, Teare GF, Henrard JC
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2003 Jun;51(3):327-38. PMID: 13130213
Nixon HH
Prog Pediatr Surg 1984;17:105-14. PMID: 6425969

Clinical prediction guides

Meyer I, Tang Y, Szychowski JM, Richter HE
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2015 Nov-Dec;21(6):339-42. doi: 10.1097/SPV.0000000000000189. PMID: 26506162Free PMC Article
Delgado SR, Maldonado J, Rammohan KW
J Neurovirol 2014 Oct;20(5):531-7. Epub 2014 Jul 1 doi: 10.1007/s13365-014-0260-8. PMID: 24981832
Bliss DZ, Westra BL, Savik K, Hou Y
Home Healthc Nurse 2014 Jan;32(1):31-8. doi: 10.1097/NHH.0000000000000012. PMID: 24326472
Westra BL, Savik K, Oancea C, Choromanski L, Holmes JH, Bliss D
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2011 Jan-Feb;38(1):77-87. PMID: 21287773Free PMC Article
Vogel LC, Krajci KA, Anderson CJ
J Spinal Cord Med 2002 Summer;25(2):106-16. PMID: 12137214

Recent systematic reviews

Spiegel BM, Hays RD, Bolus R, Melmed GY, Chang L, Whitman C, Khanna PP, Paz SH, Hays T, Reise S, Khanna D
Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Nov;109(11):1804-14. Epub 2014 Sep 9 doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.237. PMID: 25199473Free PMC Article
Wagg AS, Newman DK, Leichsenring K, van Houten P
PLoS One 2014;9(8):e104129. Epub 2014 Aug 14 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104129. PMID: 25121511Free PMC Article
Khanna P, Agarwal N, Khanna D, Hays RD, Chang L, Bolus R, Melmed G, Whitman CB, Kaplan RM, Ogawa R, Snyder B, Spiegel BM
Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Feb;109(2):234-48. Epub 2013 Dec 17 doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.401. PMID: 24343547Free PMC Article
Glotzbecker MP, Riedel MD, Vitale MG, Matsumoto H, Roye DP, Erickson M, Flynn JM, Saiman L
J Pediatr Orthop 2013 Jul-Aug;33(5):479-87. doi: 10.1097/BPO.0b013e318285c507. PMID: 23752143
de Winter CF, Jansen AA, Evenhuis HM
J Intellect Disabil Res 2011 Jul;55(7):675-98. Epub 2011 Mar 3 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2011.01390.x. PMID: 21366751

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