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1.

Neuromyelitis optica

Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disorder that affects the nerves of the eyes and the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. In neuromyelitis optica, the autoimmune attack causes inflammation of the nerves, and the resulting damage leads to the signs and symptoms of the condition.Neuromyelitis optica is characterized by optic neuritis, which is inflammation of the nerve that carries information from the eye to the brain (optic nerve). Optic neuritis causes eye pain and vision loss, which can occur in one or both eyes.Neuromyelitis optica is also characterized by transverse myelitis, which is inflammation of the spinal cord. The inflammation associated with transverse myelitis damages the spinal cord, causing a lesion that often extends the length of three or more bones of the spine (vertebrae). In addition, myelin, which is the covering that protects nerves and promotes the efficient transmission of nerve impulses, can be damaged. Transverse myelitis causes weakness, numbness, and paralysis of the arms and legs. Other effects of spinal cord damage can include disturbances in sensations, loss of bladder and bowel control, uncontrollable hiccupping, and nausea. In addition, muscle weakness may make breathing difficult and can cause life-threatening respiratory failure in people with neuromyelitis optica.There are two forms of neuromyelitis optica, the relapsing form and the monophasic form. The relapsing form is most common. This form is characterized by recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. These episodes can be months or years apart, and there is usually partial recovery between episodes. However, most affected individuals eventually develop permanent muscle weakness and vision impairment that persist even between episodes. For unknown reasons, approximately nine times more women than men have the relapsing form. The monophasic form, which is less common, causes a single episode of neuromyelitis optica that can last several months. People with this form of the condition can also have lasting muscle weakness or paralysis and vision loss. This form affects men and women equally. The onset of either form of neuromyelitis optica can occur anytime from childhood to adulthood, although the condition most frequently begins in a person's forties.Approximately one-quarter of individuals with neuromyelitis optica have signs or symptoms of another autoimmune disorder such as myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Sjögren syndrome. Some scientists believe that a condition described in Japanese patients as optic-spinal multiple sclerosis (or opticospinal multiple sclerosis) that affects the nerves of the eyes and central nervous system is the same as neuromyelitis optica. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
45063
Concept ID:
C0027873
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Neuromyelitis

MedGen UID:
507988
Concept ID:
C0027872
Pathologic Function
3.

Molecular Mimicry

The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
116705
Concept ID:
C0242943
Molecular Function
4.

Adenosine preparation

A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
127
Concept ID:
C0001443
Biologically Active Substance; Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide; Pharmacologic Substance
5.

Mimicry

MedGen UID:
535387
Concept ID:
C0233577
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
6.

Pathogenesis

The pathologic, physiologic, or biochemical mechanism resulting in the development of a disease or morbid process. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
195936
Concept ID:
C0699748
Pathologic Function
7.

Examined for

Having been subjected to inspection or evaluation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
83047
Concept ID:
C0332128
Finding
8.

Peripheral

On or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
59959
Concept ID:
C0205100
Spatial Concept
9.

Adenosine triphosphate

An adenine nucleotide comprised of three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety, found in all living cells. Adenosine triphosphate is involved in energy production for metabolic processes and RNA synthesis. In addition, this substance acts as a neurotransmitter. In cancer studies, adenosine triphosphate is synthesized to examine its use to decrease weight loss and improve muscle strength. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
133
Concept ID:
C0001480
Biologically Active Substance; Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide; Pharmacologic Substance
10.

Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS

Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
199756
Concept ID:
C0751873
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Myelitis, Postvaccinal

MedGen UID:
199636
Concept ID:
C0751344
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Myelitis, Paraneoplastic

MedGen UID:
199635
Concept ID:
C0751342
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Autoimmune Nervous System Disorder

A disorder characterized by the degeneration of the nervous system due to autoimmunity. Representative examples include multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
155946
Concept ID:
C0751871
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Myelitis, Necrotizing

MedGen UID:
152881
Concept ID:
C0746706
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Neuropapillitis

MedGen UID:
101151
Concept ID:
C0524679
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Optic neuritis

A disorder characterized by inflammation of the optic nerve. Causes include autoimmune disorders, infections, toxins, drugs, and multiple sclerosis. It may manifest with acute loss of vision and pain. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
18181
Concept ID:
C0029134
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Disorder of optic nerve

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder affecting the optic nerve (second cranial nerve). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
14497
Concept ID:
C0029132
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Disorder of nervous system

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
14336
Concept ID:
C0027765
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Transverse myelopathy syndrome

Inflammation of a transverse portion of the spinal cord characterized by acute or subacute segmental demyelination or necrosis. The condition may occur sporadically, follow an infection or vaccination, or present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (see also ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED). Clinical manifestations include motor weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1242-6) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
6488
Concept ID:
C0026976
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Eye disease

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the eye. Representative examples include conjunctivitis, glaucoma, cataract, conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, uveal melanoma, and retinoblastoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
5092
Concept ID:
C0015397
Disease or Syndrome
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