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Items: 1 to 20 of 22

1.

Green Tea Extract

Tea derived from the dried leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis with potential antioxidant, chemopreventive, and lipid-lowering activities. Green tea contains polyphenols that are believed to be responsible for its chemopreventive effect. The polyphenol fraction contains mainly Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and other catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin gallate (ECG). Green tea polyphenols act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers and may affect enzymes involved in cellular replication and tumor angiogenesis by modulating angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
309941
Concept ID:
C1704263
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Sonic Hedgehog Pathway

Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is one of a family of three secreted proteins, including Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) and Desert Hedgehog (Dhh), that play distinct and crucial roles in development. The morphogenic signal Shh provides in the developing CNS induces proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in the developing cerebellum and other tissues. Proliferative signaling by Shh is involved in the development of cancer, including specific brain and skin cancers such as basal cell carcinomas, while activation of Shh signaling in neurons may also provide a means to induce neuronal regeneration. Mitogenic Shh signaling does not appear to involve Map kinase pathways, but may involve induction of Cyclin D1 expression to maintain Rb in the hyperphosphorylated state and allow progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Activation of myc may be one mechanism by which Shh induces cell cycle progression. Activation of Shh proliferative signaling occurs through binding to a receptor complex including Patched (Ptc-1) and Smoothened, a G-protein coupled receptor. Patched is an integral membrane protein with twelve transmembrane domains that acts as an inhibitor of Smoothened activation. Patched has been classified as a tumor suppressor due to its inhibition of Smoothened and the presence of inactivated Ptc-1 mutations in some cancers. One possibility is that Ptc-1, which resembles transmembrane channels, may not directly associate with Smoothened but may repress Smoothened signaling by transporting an endogenous Smoothened inhibitor across the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm. Small non-peptide agonists and antagonists of the Shh pathway have been identified and appear to act at the level of the Smoothened receptor, providing pharmacological tools to study Shh signaling. The pathway downstream of the Smoothened receptor has remained somewhat unclear, but involves the Gli family of transcriptional activators, including Gli-1, Gli-2, and Gli-3, homologs of the drosophila gene cubitis interruptis. Kinases including GSK-3 and PKA oppose activation of the Shh pathway, perhaps by regulating the stability of Shh pathway intermediate signaling factors transcription factors. Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) interacts directly with Gli proteins, repressing Shh signaling while Dyrk1 is a kinase that acts by a distinct pathway to stimulate Gli1 activation of transcription. The multiplicity of factors involved in Shh signaling creates many opportunities for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of cancer and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. [from NCI_BioC]

MedGen UID:
276840
Concept ID:
C1519425
Molecular Function
3.

Proliferation

MedGen UID:
137720
Concept ID:
C0334094
Pathologic Function
4.

Neurodegenerative disease

Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
101195
Concept ID:
C0524851
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Cyclopamine

MedGen UID:
63949
Concept ID:
C0056789
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Improved

Condition changed and/or recovered [from CCC]

MedGen UID:
512204
Concept ID:
C0184511
Finding
7.

Blockage (obstruction - finding)

MedGen UID:
317412
Concept ID:
C1706968
Finding
8.

Ameliorated by

Weakened or thinned. Attenuated strains of disease-causing bacteria and viruses are often used as vaccines. The weakened strains are used as vaccines because they stimulate a protective immune response while causing no disease or only mild disease in the person receiving the vaccine. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
83049
Concept ID:
C0332161
Qualitative Concept
9.

Niemann-Pick disease, type C

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a lipid storage disease that can present in infants, children, or adults. Neonates can present with ascites and severe liver disease from infiltration of the liver and/or respiratory failure from infiltration of the lungs. Other infants, without liver or pulmonary disease, have hypotonia and developmental delay. The classic presentation occurs in mid-to-late childhood with the insidious onset of ataxia, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy (VSGP), and dementia. Dystonia and seizures are common. Dysarthria and dysphagia eventually become disabling, making oral feeding impossible; death usually occurs in the late second or third decade from aspiration pneumonia. Adults are more likely to present with dementia or psychiatric symptoms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
67399
Concept ID:
C0220756
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Signal Transduction Pathways

An elaboration of the known or inferred interactions involved in a signal transduction pathway. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
39530
Concept ID:
C0086982
Molecular Function
11.

Plant Preparations

Material prepared from plants. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
183699
Concept ID:
C0949854
Pharmacologic Substance
12.

(+)-Cyanidanol-3

MedGen UID:
181518
Concept ID:
C0917995
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
13.

KB-53

MedGen UID:
163890
Concept ID:
C0878496
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
14.

2-(2',3'-dichloro-4'-carboxymethyleneoxybenzoyl)chromone

MedGen UID:
115659
Concept ID:
C0612577
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
15.

Zyma

MedGen UID:
12208
Concept ID:
C0043547
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
16.

Epicatechin

MedGen UID:
8656
Concept ID:
C0014485
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
17.

Cyanidanol-3

MedGen UID:
4094
Concept ID:
C0010504
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Catergen

MedGen UID:
2906
Concept ID:
C0007417
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Bioflavonoids

Naturally occurring flavone or coumarin derivatives having the activity of the so-called vitamin P, notably rutin and esculin. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
2254
Concept ID:
C0005492
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance; Vitamin
20.

Catechin

An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
803
Concept ID:
C0007404
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
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