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Leukemia

MedGen UID:
9725
Concept ID:
C0023418
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Blood cancer
SNOMED CT: Leukemia morphology (87163000); Leukemia (87163000); Leukemia (93143009); Subacute leukemia [obs] (87163000); Chronic leukemia [obs] (87163000); Aleukemic leukemia [obs] (87163000); Leukemia, disease (93143009); Leukemia, no ICD-O subtype (87163000); Leukemia, no International Classification of Diseases for Oncology subtype (87163000)
 
HPO: HP:0001909

Definition

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. There are different types of leukemia, including. -Acute lymphocytic leukemia. -Acute myeloid leukemia. -Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. -Chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia can develop quickly or slowly. Chronic leukemia grows slowly. In acute leukemia, the cells are very abnormal and their number increases rapidly. Adults can get either type; children with leukemia most often have an acute type. Some leukemias can often be cured. Other types are hard to cure, but you can often control them. Treatments may include chemotherapy, radiation and stem cell transplantation. Even if symptoms disappear, you might need therapy to prevent a relapse. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVLeukemia

Conditions with this feature

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Congenital Abnormality
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune defects, and a predisposition to malignancy. Chromosomal breakage is a feature. AT cells are abnormally sensitive to killing by ionizing radiation (IR), and abnormally resistant to inhibition of DNA synthesis by ionizing radiation. The latter trait has been used to identify complementation groups for the classic form of the disease (Jaspers et al., 1988). At least 4 of these (A, C, D, and E) map to chromosome 11q23 (Sanal et al., 1990) and are associated with mutations in the ATM gene.
Bloom syndrome
MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Congenital Abnormality
Bloom’s syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, sparseness of subcutaneous fat tissue throughout infancy and early childhood, and short stature throughout postnatal life that in most affected individuals is accompanied by an erythematous and sun-sensitive skin lesion of the face. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common and very possibly responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, the middle ear, and the lung that occur repeatedly in most persons with BSyn. Although most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability, many exhibit a poorly defined learning disability. Women may be fertile, but menopause occurs unusually early; men are infertile. Serious medical complications that are much more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus resembling the adult-onset type, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites. BSyn occurs rarely in all national and ethnic groups but is relatively less rare in Ashkenazi Jews.
Acute myeloid leukemia, M6 type
MedGen UID:
7316
Concept ID:
C0023440
Neoplastic Process
Familial erythroleukemia is a leukemic or preleukemic state in which red cell proliferation is the predominant feature. Hematologic characteristics include particularly ineffective and hyperplastic erythropoiesis with megaloblastic components accompanied by myeloblastic proliferation of varying degree (Park et al., 2002). Park et al. (2002) discussed the evolution of the definition of 'erythroleukemia,' which is considered by most to be a subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML; 601626). Controversy about the precise definition of erythroleukemia revolves around the number or percentage of erythroblasts and myeloblasts found in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation. In the French-American-British (FAB) classification system (Bennett et al., 1985), it is known as AML-M6, whereas in the revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification system (Harris et al., 1999), it is known as 'AML, not otherwise categorized' (Zini and D'Onofrio, 2004).
Retinoblastoma
MedGen UID:
20552
Concept ID:
C0035335
Neoplastic Process
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a malignant tumor of the developing retina that occurs in children, usually before age five years. Rb develops from cells that have cancer-predisposing variants in both copies of RB1. Rb may be unifocal or multifocal. About 60% of affected individuals have unilateral Rb with a mean age of diagnosis of 24 months; about 40% have bilateral Rb with a mean age of diagnosis of 15 months. Heritable retinoblastoma is an autosomal dominant susceptibility for Rb. Individuals with heritable retinoblastoma are also at increased risk of developing non-ocular tumors.
Turcot syndrome
MedGen UID:
78553
Concept ID:
C0265325
Disease or Syndrome
Lynch syndrome, caused by a germline pathogenic variant in a mismatch repair gene and associated with tumors exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI), is characterized by an increased risk for colon cancer and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, urinary tract, brain, and skin. In individuals with Lynch syndrome the following life time risks for cancer are seen: 52%-82% for colorectal cancer (mean age at diagnosis 44-61 years); 25%-60% for endometrial cancer in women (mean age at diagnosis 48-62 years); 6% to 13% for gastric cancer (mean age at diagnosis 56 years); and 4%-12% for ovarian cancer (mean age at diagnosis 42.5 years; approximately 30% are diagnosed before age 40 years). The risk for other Lynch syndrome-related cancers is lower, though substantially increased over general population rates.
WT limb blood syndrome
MedGen UID:
231231
Concept ID:
C1327917
Disease or Syndrome
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
MedGen UID:
320546
Concept ID:
C1835192
Disease or Syndrome
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is a malignant B-cell neoplasm characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the bone marrow and hypersecretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) protein (review by Vijay and Gertz, 2007). The importance of genetic factors is suggested by the observation of familial clustering of WM (McMaster, 2003). Whereas WM is rare, an asymptomatic elevation of monoclonal IgM protein, termed 'IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance' (IgM MGUS) is more common. Patients with IgM MGUS can progress to develop WM, at the rate of 1.5% to 2% per year (Kyle et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia One locus for susceptibility to Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM1) maps to chromosome 6p21.3. Another locus (WM2; 610430) maps to chromosome 4q.
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome
MedGen UID:
338026
Concept ID:
C1850343
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mosaic aneuploidies, predominantly trisomies and monosomies, involving multiple different chromosomes and tissues (Hanks et al., 2004). The proportion of aneuploid cells varies but is usually more than 25% and is substantially greater than in normal individuals. Affected individuals typically present with severe intrauterine growth retardation and microcephaly. Eye anomalies, mild dysmorphism, variable developmental delay, and a broad spectrum of additional congenital abnormalities and medical conditions may also occur. The risk of malignancy is high, with rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumor, and leukemia reported in several cases. See also MVA2 (614114), caused by mutation in the CEP57 gene (607951) on chromosome 11q21.
Severe congenital neutropenia
MedGen UID:
343974
Concept ID:
C1853118
Finding
Severe congenital neutropenia is a condition that causes affected individuals to be prone to recurrent infections. People with this condition have a shortage (deficiency) of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a role in inflammation and in fighting infection. The deficiency of neutrophils, called neutropenia, is apparent at birth or soon afterward. It leads to recurrent infections beginning in infancy, including infections of the sinuses, lungs, and liver. Affected individuals can also develop fevers and inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) and skin. Approximately 40 percent of affected people have decreased bone density (osteopenia) and may develop osteoporosis, a condition that makes bones progressively more brittle and prone to fracture. In people with severe congenital neutropenia, these bone disorders can begin at any time from infancy through adulthood.Approximately 20 percent of people with severe congenital neutropenia develop cancer of the blood-forming tissue (leukemia) or a disease of the blood and bone marrow (myelodysplastic syndrome) during adolescence.Some people with severe congenital neutropenia have additional health problems such as seizures, developmental delay, or heart and genital abnormalities.
Ataxia-telangiectasia with generalized skin pigmentation and early death
MedGen UID:
395306
Concept ID:
C1859615
Disease or Syndrome
Megalencephaly cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita
MedGen UID:
355421
Concept ID:
C1865285
Congenital Abnormality
Megalencephaly-capillary malformation-polymicrogyria syndrome (MCAP) is characterized by a spectrum of anomalies including primary megalencephaly, prenatal overgrowth, brain and body asymmetry, cutaneous vascular malformations, digital anomalies consisting of syndactyly with or without postaxial polydactyly, connective tissue dysplasia involving the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and joints, and cortical brain malformations, most distinctively polymicrogyria (summary by Mirzaa et al., 2012). This disorder is also known as the macrocephaly-capillary malformation (MCM) syndrome (Conway et al., 2007). Mirzaa et al. (2012) suggested use of the term MCAP rather than MCM to reflect the very large brain size, rather than simply large head size, that characterizes this syndrome, and the importance and high frequency of perisylvian polymicrogyria.
RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder
MedGen UID:
382434
Concept ID:
C2674723
Gene or Genome
RAS-associated leukoproliferative disorder is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and variable autoimmune phenomena, including autoimmune hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and neutropenia. Laboratory studies show an expansion of lymphocytes due to defective apoptosis, as well as significant autoantibodies. Some patients have recurrent infections, and there may be an increased risk of hematologic malignancy (summary by Oliveira, 2013 and Niemela et al., 2010). The disorder shows significant overlap with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS; 601859) and was originally designated ALPS IV.
N syndrome
MedGen UID:
424834
Concept ID:
C2936859
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2
MedGen UID:
463627
Concept ID:
C3160738
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group E
MedGen UID:
463628
Concept ID:
C3160739
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group C
MedGen UID:
483324
Concept ID:
C3468041
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group A
MedGen UID:
483333
Concept ID:
C3469521
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
fanconi anemia complementation group g
MedGen UID:
854017
Concept ID:
C3469527
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia caused by mutations of the FANCG gene.
Pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 1
MedGen UID:
766531
Concept ID:
C3553617
Disease or Syndrome
Shortened telomeres can cause a wide variety of clinical features that constitute a phenotypic spectrum. The most severe form is dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., 127750), characterized by early childhood onset of skin abnormalities, bone marrow failure, predisposition to malignancy, and risk of pulmonary and hepatic fibrosis. Adult-onset pulmonary fibrosis is the most common manifestation of mutant telomerase genes. Other manifestations include aplastic anemia due to bone marrow failure, hepatic fibrosis, and increased cancer risk, particularly myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Phenotype, age at onset, and severity are determined by telomere length, not just telomerase mutation (summary by Armanios, 2009). The genetic diagnosis of telomere-related bone marrow failure and pulmonary fibrosis has implications for treatment because affected individuals generally do not respond to immunosuppression and may be at increased risk for fatal complications after bone marrow or lung transplantation (Parry et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Telomere-Related Pulmonary Fibrosis and/or Bone Marrow Failure Also see PFBMFT2 (614743), caused by mutation in the TERC gene (602322) on chromosome 3q; PFBMFT3 (616373), caused by mutation in the RTEL1 gene (608833) on chromosome 20q13; and PFBMFT4 (616371), caused by mutation in the PARN gene (604212) on chromosome 16p13.
Pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 2
MedGen UID:
766536
Concept ID:
C3553622
Disease or Syndrome

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Müller-Tidow C, Tschanter P, Röllig C, Thiede C, Koschmieder A, Stelljes M, Koschmieder S, Dugas M, Gerss J, Butterfaß-Bahloul T, Wagner R, Eveslage M, Thiem U, Krause SW, Kaiser U, Kunzmann V, Steffen B, Noppeney R, Herr W, Baldus CD, Schmitz N, Götze K, Reichle A, Kaufmann M, Neubauer A, Schäfer-Eckart K, Hänel M, Peceny R, Frickhofen N, Kiehl M, Giagounidis A, Görner M, Repp R, Link H, Kiani A, Naumann R, Brümmendorf TH, Serve H, Ehninger G, Berdel WE, Krug U; Study Alliance Leukemia Group.
Leukemia 2016 Mar;30(3):555-61. Epub 2015 Nov 2 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.306. PMID: 26522083
Cichocki F, Cooley S, Davis Z, DeFor TE, Schlums H, Zhang B, Brunstein CG, Blazar BR, Wagner J, Diamond DJ, Verneris MR, Bryceson YT, Weisdorf DJ, Miller JS
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):456-63. Epub 2015 Sep 29 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.260. PMID: 26416461Free PMC Article
Ringdén O, Labopin M, Ciceri F, Velardi A, Bacigalupo A, Arcese W, Ghavamzadeh A, Hamladji RM, Schmid C, Nagler A, Mohty M
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):447-55. Epub 2015 Aug 21 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.232. PMID: 26293645
Tambaro FP, Garcia-Manero G, O'Brien SM, Faderl SH, Ferrajoli A, Burger JA, Pierce S, Wang X, Do KA, Kantarjian HM, Keating MJ, Wierda WG
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):325-30. Epub 2015 Aug 20 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.227. PMID: 26290497Free PMC Article
Nakata J, Nakano K, Okumura A, Mizutani Y, Kinoshita H, Iwai M, Hasegawa K, Morimoto S, Fujiki F, Tatsumi N, Nakajima H, Nakae Y, Nishida S, Tsuboi A, Oji Y, Oka Y, Sugiyama H, Kumanogoh A, Hosen N
Leukemia 2014 Jun;28(6):1316-25. Epub 2013 Nov 13 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.374. PMID: 24336127

Diagnosis

Müller-Tidow C, Tschanter P, Röllig C, Thiede C, Koschmieder A, Stelljes M, Koschmieder S, Dugas M, Gerss J, Butterfaß-Bahloul T, Wagner R, Eveslage M, Thiem U, Krause SW, Kaiser U, Kunzmann V, Steffen B, Noppeney R, Herr W, Baldus CD, Schmitz N, Götze K, Reichle A, Kaufmann M, Neubauer A, Schäfer-Eckart K, Hänel M, Peceny R, Frickhofen N, Kiehl M, Giagounidis A, Görner M, Repp R, Link H, Kiani A, Naumann R, Brümmendorf TH, Serve H, Ehninger G, Berdel WE, Krug U; Study Alliance Leukemia Group.
Leukemia 2016 Mar;30(3):555-61. Epub 2015 Nov 2 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.306. PMID: 26522083
Tambaro FP, Garcia-Manero G, O'Brien SM, Faderl SH, Ferrajoli A, Burger JA, Pierce S, Wang X, Do KA, Kantarjian HM, Keating MJ, Wierda WG
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):325-30. Epub 2015 Aug 20 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.227. PMID: 26290497Free PMC Article
Chen L, Chen W, Mysliwski M, Serio J, Ropa J, Abulwerdi FA, Chan RJ, Patel JP, Tallman MS, Paietta E, Melnick A, Levine RL, Abdel-Wahab O, Nikolovska-Coleska Z, Muntean AG
Leukemia 2015 Jun;29(6):1290-300. Epub 2015 Feb 4 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.18. PMID: 25650089Free PMC Article
Sandhöfer N, Metzeler KH, Rothenberg M, Herold T, Tiedt S, Groiß V, Carlet M, Walter G, Hinrichsen T, Wachter O, Grunert M, Schneider S, Subklewe M, Dufour A, Fröhling S, Klein HG, Hiddemann W, Jeremias I, Spiekermann K
Leukemia 2015 Apr;29(4):828-38. Epub 2014 Oct 17 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.305. PMID: 25322685
Liu Y, Cheng H, Gao S, Lu X, He F, Hu L, Hou D, Zou Z, Li Y, Zhang H, Xu J, Kang L, Wang Q, Yuan W, Gao S, Cheng T
Leukemia 2014 May;28(5):1071-80. Epub 2013 Oct 22 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.304. PMID: 24150221Free PMC Article

Therapy

Müller-Tidow C, Tschanter P, Röllig C, Thiede C, Koschmieder A, Stelljes M, Koschmieder S, Dugas M, Gerss J, Butterfaß-Bahloul T, Wagner R, Eveslage M, Thiem U, Krause SW, Kaiser U, Kunzmann V, Steffen B, Noppeney R, Herr W, Baldus CD, Schmitz N, Götze K, Reichle A, Kaufmann M, Neubauer A, Schäfer-Eckart K, Hänel M, Peceny R, Frickhofen N, Kiehl M, Giagounidis A, Görner M, Repp R, Link H, Kiani A, Naumann R, Brümmendorf TH, Serve H, Ehninger G, Berdel WE, Krug U; Study Alliance Leukemia Group.
Leukemia 2016 Mar;30(3):555-61. Epub 2015 Nov 2 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.306. PMID: 26522083
Wu H, Hu C, Wang A, Weisberg EL, Chen Y, Yun CH, Wang W, Liu Y, Liu X, Tian B, Wang J, Zhao Z, Liang Y, Li B, Wang L, Wang B, Chen C, Buhrlage SJ, Qi Z, Zou F, Nonami A, Li Y, Fernandes SM, Adamia S, Stone RM, Galinsky IA, Wang X, Yang G, Griffin JD, Brown JR, Eck MJ, Liu J, Gray NS, Liu Q
Leukemia 2016 Jan;30(1):173-81. Epub 2015 Jul 13 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.180. PMID: 26165234Free PMC Article
Sehgal AR, Konig H, Johnson DE, Tang D, Amaravadi RK, Boyiadzis M, Lotze MT
Leukemia 2015 Mar;29(3):517-25. Epub 2014 Nov 26 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.349. PMID: 25541151Free PMC Article
Greenblatt SM, Nimer SD
Leukemia 2014 Jul;28(7):1396-406. Epub 2014 Mar 10 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.94. PMID: 24609046
Callahan KP, Minhajuddin M, Corbett C, Lagadinou ED, Rossi RM, Grose V, Balys MM, Pan L, Jacob S, Frontier A, Grever MR, Lucas DM, Kinghorn AD, Liesveld JL, Becker MW, Jordan CT
Leukemia 2014 Oct;28(10):1960-8. Epub 2014 Feb 28 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.93. PMID: 24577530Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Tambaro FP, Garcia-Manero G, O'Brien SM, Faderl SH, Ferrajoli A, Burger JA, Pierce S, Wang X, Do KA, Kantarjian HM, Keating MJ, Wierda WG
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):325-30. Epub 2015 Aug 20 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.227. PMID: 26290497Free PMC Article
Forristal CE, Brown AL, Helwani FM, Winkler IG, Nowlan B, Barbier V, Powell RJ, Engler GA, Diakiw SM, Zannettino AC, Martin S, Pattabiraman D, D'Andrea RJ, Lewis ID, Levesque JP
Leukemia 2015 Oct;29(10):2075-85. Epub 2015 Apr 29 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.102. PMID: 25921247
Ariës IM, Jerchel IS, van den Dungen RE, van den Berk LC, Boer JM, Horstmann MA, Escherich G, Pieters R, den Boer ML
Leukemia 2014 Sep;28(9):1828-37. Epub 2014 Feb 20 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.80. PMID: 24625531
Greenblatt SM, Nimer SD
Leukemia 2014 Jul;28(7):1396-406. Epub 2014 Mar 10 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.94. PMID: 24609046
Wang QF, Li YJ, Dong JF, Li B, Kaberlein JJ, Zhang L, Arimura FE, Luo RT, Ni J, He F, Wu J, Mattison R, Zhou J, Wang CZ, Prabhakar S, Nobrega MA, Thirman MJ
Leukemia 2014 Jan;28(1):138-46. Epub 2013 Sep 11 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.260. PMID: 24022755

Clinical prediction guides

Cichocki F, Cooley S, Davis Z, DeFor TE, Schlums H, Zhang B, Brunstein CG, Blazar BR, Wagner J, Diamond DJ, Verneris MR, Bryceson YT, Weisdorf DJ, Miller JS
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):456-63. Epub 2015 Sep 29 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.260. PMID: 26416461Free PMC Article
Ringdén O, Labopin M, Ciceri F, Velardi A, Bacigalupo A, Arcese W, Ghavamzadeh A, Hamladji RM, Schmid C, Nagler A, Mohty M
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):447-55. Epub 2015 Aug 21 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.232. PMID: 26293645
Wu H, Hu C, Wang A, Weisberg EL, Chen Y, Yun CH, Wang W, Liu Y, Liu X, Tian B, Wang J, Zhao Z, Liang Y, Li B, Wang L, Wang B, Chen C, Buhrlage SJ, Qi Z, Zou F, Nonami A, Li Y, Fernandes SM, Adamia S, Stone RM, Galinsky IA, Wang X, Yang G, Griffin JD, Brown JR, Eck MJ, Liu J, Gray NS, Liu Q
Leukemia 2016 Jan;30(1):173-81. Epub 2015 Jul 13 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.180. PMID: 26165234Free PMC Article
Huang X, Spencer GJ, Lynch JT, Ciceri F, Somerville TD, Somervaille TC
Leukemia 2014 May;28(5):1081-91. Epub 2013 Oct 29 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.316. PMID: 24166297Free PMC Article
Wang QF, Li YJ, Dong JF, Li B, Kaberlein JJ, Zhang L, Arimura FE, Luo RT, Ni J, He F, Wu J, Mattison R, Zhou J, Wang CZ, Prabhakar S, Nobrega MA, Thirman MJ
Leukemia 2014 Jan;28(1):138-46. Epub 2013 Sep 11 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.260. PMID: 24022755

Recent systematic reviews

Whitehead TP, Metayer C, Wiemels JL, Singer AW, Miller MD
Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2016 Oct;46(10):317-352. doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2016.08.004. PMID: 27968954Free PMC Article
Ma JJ, Shang J, Wang H, Sui JR, Liu K, Du JX
J Cancer Res Ther 2016 Apr-Jun;12(2):897-902. doi: 10.4103/0973-1482.186695. PMID: 27461671
Tian X, Dai S, Sun J, Jiang S, Jiang Y
Sci Rep 2016 Apr 7;6:24097. doi: 10.1038/srep24097. PMID: 27053289Free PMC Article
Athale UH, Gibson PJ, Bradley NM, Malkin DM, Hitzler J; POGO MRD Working Group.
Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 Jun;63(6):973-82. Epub 2016 Feb 23 doi: 10.1002/pbc.25939. PMID: 26914030
Amankwah EK, Saenz AM, Hale GA, Brown PA
Leuk Lymphoma 2016 May;57(5):1140-8. Epub 2015 Oct 9 doi: 10.3109/10428194.2015.1076815. PMID: 26453440

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