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1.

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified

The most common type of invasive breast carcinoma, accounting for approximately 70% of breast carcinomas. The gross appearance is usually typical with an irregular stellate outline. Microscopically, randomly arranged epithelial elements are seen. When large sheets of malignant cells are present, necrosis may be seen. With adequate tissue sampling, in situ carcinoma can be demonstrated in association with the infiltrating carcinoma. The in situ component is nearly always ductal but occasionally may be lobular or both. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
209548
Concept ID:
C1134719
Neoplastic Process
2.

Formalin

A saturated solution of formaldehyde, water, and typically another agent, most commonly methanol. In its typical form, formalin is 37% formaldehyde by weight (40% by volume), 6-13% methanol, and the rest water. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
215328
Concept ID:
C0949307
Hazardous or Poisonous Substance; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Carcinogenesis

A pathological process in which normal cells are transformed into malignant cancer cells within a primary tumor. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
154544
Concept ID:
C0596263
Neoplastic Process
4.

Carcinoma

A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2867
Concept ID:
C0007097
Neoplastic Process
5.

Carcinoma In Situ

A malignant epithelial neoplasm which is confined to the epithelial layer without evidence of further tissue invasion. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
763
Concept ID:
C0007099
Neoplastic Process
6.

Malignant Breast Neoplasm

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm involving the breast. The vast majority of cases are carcinomas arising from the breast parenchyma or the nipple. Malignant breast neoplasms occur more frequently in females than in males. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
651
Concept ID:
C0006142
Neoplastic Process
7.

Carcinoma

MedGen UID:
910818
Concept ID:
CN241453
Finding
8.

Prepared

MedGen UID:
881385
Concept ID:
C4082130
Finding
9.

breast cancer

MedGen UID:
880206
Concept ID:
CN235590
Finding
10.

Primary cortisol resistance

MedGen UID:
443921
Concept ID:
C2930863
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Neoplasm of the breast

Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. In both women and men, the most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the milk ducts (ductal cancer). In women, cancer can also develop in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer). Most men have little or no lobular tissue, so lobular cancer in men is very rare.In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include a lump or thickening in or near the breast; a change in the size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, or retraction (turning inward); and skin irritation, dimpling, or scaliness. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer.In some cases, cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. If breast cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers.A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
264172
Concept ID:
C1458155
Neoplastic Process
12.

Invasive Carcinoma

A carcinoma that is not confined to the epithelium, and has spread to the surrounding stroma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
233579
Concept ID:
C1334274
Neoplastic Process
13.

Invasive Breast Carcinoma

A carcinoma that infiltrates the breast parenchyma. The vast majority are adenocarcinomas arising from the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). Often, the invasive adenocarcinoma co-exists with ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ. It is the most common carcinoma affecting women. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
163435
Concept ID:
C0853879
Neoplastic Process
14.

Breast carcinoma

A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
15.

Mass of body structure

A benign or malignant pathologic structure in any part of the body, resulting from a neoplastic accumulation of cells, inflammatory cells, or cystic changes. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108287
Concept ID:
C0577559
Finding
16.

Benign Epithelial Neoplasm

A neoplasm arising from the epithelial cells. It is characterized by the absence of morphologic features associated with malignancy (severe cytologic atypia, tumor cell necrosis, and high mitotic rate). Benign epithelial neoplasms remain confined to the original site of growth and only rarely metastasize to other anatomic sites. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
90747
Concept ID:
C0334232
Neoplastic Process
17.

Frequent

Coming at short intervals or in great quantities. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
87144
Concept ID:
C0332183
Temporal Concept
18.

Lesion

A localized pathological or traumatic structural change, damage, deformity, or discontinuity of tissue, organ, or body part. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
65128
Concept ID:
C0221198
Finding
19.

Ductal carcinoma in situ

A carcinoma entirely confined to the mammary ducts. It is also known as DCIS. There is no evidence of invasion of the basement membrane. Currently, it is classified into three categories: High-grade DCIS, intermediate-grade DCIS and low-grade DCIS. In this classification the DCIS grade is defined by a combination of nuclear grade, architectural growth pattern and presence of necrosis. The size of the lesion as well as the grade and the clearance margins play a major role in dictating the most appropriate therapy for DCIS. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
765
Concept ID:
C0007124
Neoplastic Process
20.

Epithelial Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from and is composed of epithelial cells. This category include adenomas, papillomas, and carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
277963
Concept ID:
C1368683
Neoplastic Process
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