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Short stature, onychodysplasia, facial dysmorphism, and hypotrichosis(SOFT)

MedGen UID:
762199
Concept ID:
C3542022
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: SOFT; SOFT SYNDROME
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal recessive inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): POC1A (3p21.2)
OMIM®: 614813
Orphanet: ORPHA314394

Definition

SOFT syndrome is characterized by severely short long bones, peculiar facies associated with paucity of hair, and nail anomalies. Growth retardation is evident on prenatal ultrasound as early as the second trimester of pregnancy, and affected individuals reach a final stature consistent with a height age of 6 years to 8 years. Relative macrocephaly is present during early childhood but head circumference is markedly low by adulthood. Psychomotor development is normal. Facial dysmorphism includes a long, triangular face with prominent nose and small ears, and affected individuals have an unusual high-pitched voice. Clinodactyly, brachydactyly, and hypoplastic distal phalanges and fingernails are present in association with postpubertal sparse and short hair. Typical skeletal findings include short and thick long bones with mild irregular metaphyseal changes, short femoral necks, and hypoplastic pelvis and sacrum. All long bones of the hand are short, with major delay of carpal ossification and cone-shaped epiphyses. Vertebral body ossification is also delayed (summary by Sarig et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

Diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your glucose level and take medicine if prescribed. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used to describe a series of Mendelian diseases characterized by distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here, however, it is preferable to described the observed phenotypic abnormalities precisely.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
120550
Concept ID:
C0265610
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Small hand
MedGen UID:
108279
Concept ID:
C0575802
Finding
Disproportionately small hand.
Short femoral neck
MedGen UID:
373033
Concept ID:
C1836184
Finding
An abnormally short femoral neck (which is the process of bone, connecting the femoral head with the femoral shaft).
Short metatarsal
MedGen UID:
341358
Concept ID:
C1849020
Finding
Diminished length of a metatarsal bone, with resultant proximal displacement of the associated toe.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
7064
Concept ID:
C0021288
Patient or Disabled Group
Smaller than normal size according to sex and gestational age related norms, defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Muscular hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Muscular hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. Hypotonia is characterized by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
Diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your glucose level and take medicine if prescribed. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
High pitched voice
MedGen UID:
66836
Concept ID:
C0241703
Finding
An abnormal increase in the pitch (frequency) of the voice.
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used to describe a series of Mendelian diseases characterized by distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here, however, it is preferable to described the observed phenotypic abnormalities precisely.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
120550
Concept ID:
C0265610
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Short femoral neck
MedGen UID:
373033
Concept ID:
C1836184
Finding
An abnormally short femoral neck (which is the process of bone, connecting the femoral head with the femoral shaft).
Short metatarsal
MedGen UID:
341358
Concept ID:
C1849020
Finding
Diminished length of a metatarsal bone, with resultant proximal displacement of the associated toe.
Cone-shaped epiphysis
MedGen UID:
351282
Concept ID:
C1865037
Finding
Cone-shaped epiphyses (also known as coned epiphyses) are epiphyses that invaginate into cupped metaphyses. That is, the epiphysis has a cone-shaped distal extension resulting from increased growth of the central portion of the epiphysis relative to its periphery.
Hypoplastic pelvis
MedGen UID:
760700
Concept ID:
C3536734
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the bony pelvis.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Macrocephaly refers to an abnormally enlarged head inclusive of the scalp, cranial bones, and intracranial contents. Macrocephaly may be due to megalencephaly (true enlargement of the brain parenchyma), and the 2 terms are often used interchangeably in the genetic literature (reviews by Olney, 2007 and Williams et al., 2008). Autosomal recessive macrocephaly/megalencephaly syndrome is characterized by an enlarged cranium apparent at birth or in early childhood. Affected individuals have intellectual disability and may have dysmorphic facial features resulting from the macrocephaly (summary by Alfaiz et al., 2014).
Breast hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
75594
Concept ID:
C0266013
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the breast.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVShort stature, onychodysplasia, facial dysmorphism, and hypotrichosis
Follow this link to review classifications for Short stature, onychodysplasia, facial dysmorphism, and hypotrichosis in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Sarig O, Nahum S, Rapaport D, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Fuchs-Telem D, Qiaoli L, Cohen-Katsenelson K, Spiegel R, Nousbeck J, Israeli S, Borochowitz ZU, Padalon-Brauch G, Uitto J, Horowitz M, Shalev S, Sprecher E
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Aug 10;91(2):337-42. Epub 2012 Jul 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.06.003. PMID: 22840363Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Ko JM, Jung S, Seo J, Shin CH, Cheong HI, Choi M, Kim OH, Cho TJ
J Hum Genet 2016 Jun;61(6):561-4. Epub 2016 Jan 21 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2015.174. PMID: 26791357
Barraza-García J, Iván Rivera-Pedroza C, Salamanca L, Belinchón A, López-González V, Sentchordi-Montané L, del Pozo Á, Santos-Simarro F, Campos-Barros Á, Lapunzina P, Guillén-Navarro E, González-Casado I, García-Miñaur S, Heath KE
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Jan;170A(1):210-6. Epub 2015 Sep 16 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37393. PMID: 26374189

Prognosis

Sarig O, Nahum S, Rapaport D, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Fuchs-Telem D, Qiaoli L, Cohen-Katsenelson K, Spiegel R, Nousbeck J, Israeli S, Borochowitz ZU, Padalon-Brauch G, Uitto J, Horowitz M, Shalev S, Sprecher E
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Aug 10;91(2):337-42. Epub 2012 Jul 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.06.003. PMID: 22840363Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Sarig O, Nahum S, Rapaport D, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Fuchs-Telem D, Qiaoli L, Cohen-Katsenelson K, Spiegel R, Nousbeck J, Israeli S, Borochowitz ZU, Padalon-Brauch G, Uitto J, Horowitz M, Shalev S, Sprecher E
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Aug 10;91(2):337-42. Epub 2012 Jul 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.06.003. PMID: 22840363Free PMC Article

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