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1.

Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastoma is the most common brain tumor in children. It accounts for 16% of all pediatric brain tumors, and 40% of all cerebellar tumors in childhood are medulloblastoma. Medulloblastoma occurs bimodally, with peak incidences between 3 and 4 years and 8 and 9 years of age. Approximately 10 to 15% of medulloblastomas are diagnosed in infancy. Medulloblastoma accounts for less than 1% of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in adults, with highest incidence in adults 20 to 34 years of age. In 1 to 2% of patients, medulloblastoma is associated with Gorlin syndrome (109400), a nevoid basal carcinoma syndrome. Medulloblastoma also occurs in up to 40% of patients with Turcot syndrome (276300). Medulloblastoma is thought to arise from neural stem cell precursors in the granular cell layer of the cerebellum. Standard treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, and, depending on the age of the patient, radiation therapy (Crawford et al., 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
7517
Concept ID:
C0025149
Neoplastic Process
2.

Medulloblastoma

A rapidly growing embryonic tumor arising in the posterior part of the cerebellar vermis and neuroepithelial roof of the fourth ventricle in children. More rarely, medulloblastoma arises in the cerebellum in adults. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505388
Concept ID:
CN002609
Finding
3.

camptothecin-11

MedGen UID:
196106
Concept ID:
C0701185
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
4.

Iron

Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries oxygen from our lungs throughout our bodies. It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and enzymes. Your body needs the right amount of iron. If you have too little iron, you may develop iron deficiency anemia. Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. People at higher risk of having too little iron are young children and women who are pregnant or have periods. Too much iron can damage your body. Taking too many iron supplements can cause iron poisoning. Some people have an inherited disease called hemochromatosis. It causes too much iron to build up in the body. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
137068
Concept ID:
C0302583
Biologically Active Substance; Element, Ion, or Isotope; Pharmacologic Substance
5.

SN 38

MedGen UID:
99648
Concept ID:
C0142710
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Irinotecan

The active ingredient in a drug used alone or with other drugs to treat colon cancer or rectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body or has come back after treatment with fluorouracil. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Irinotecan blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor and a type of camptothecin analog. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
50757
Concept ID:
C0123931
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
7.

Experimental Tumor

Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
10216
Concept ID:
C0027659
Experimental Model of Disease; Neoplastic Process
8.

Camptothecin

An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2422
Concept ID:
C0006812
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
9.

SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS, NEONATAL

Neonatal sclerosing cholangitis is a rare autosomal recessive form of severe liver disease with onset in infancy. Affected infants have jaundice, cholestasis, acholic stools, and progressive liver dysfunction resulting in fibrosis and cirrhosis; most require liver transplantation in the first few decades of life. Cholangiography shows patent biliary ducts, but there are bile duct irregularities (summary by Girard et al., 2016; Grammatikopoulos et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
910848
Concept ID:
CN241830
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Brain neoplasm

MedGen UID:
910838
Concept ID:
CN241425
Finding
11.

Epithelioma, malignant

MedGen UID:
639977
Concept ID:
C0553707
Neoplastic Process
12.

Resonance

MedGen UID:
534094
Concept ID:
C0231881
Finding
13.

Growth & development aspects

Used with microorganisms, plants, and the postnatal period of animals for growth and development. It includes also the postnatal growth or development of organs or anatomical parts. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
264311
Concept ID:
C1457898
Finding; Functional Concept; Physiologic Function
14.

Neoplasm

A malignant tumor at the original site of growth. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
227011
Concept ID:
C1306459
Finding; Neoplastic Process
15.

Topoisomerase I Inhibitors

Any substance that inhibits topoisomerase-I, a topoisomerase that relieves torsional stress in a DNA molecule by cutting only one strand of the DNA double helix. Inhibition of topoisomerase-I causes DNA damage, inhibition of DNA replication, and apoptosis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108556
Concept ID:
C0594374
Pharmacologic Substance
16.

Heterogeneous

The production of the same or similar phenotypes (observed biochemical, physiological, and morphological characteristics of a person determined by his/her genotype) by different genetic mechanisms. There are two types: (1) allelic heterogeneity - when different alleles at a locus can produce variable expression of a condition; and (2) locus heterogeneity - the term used to describe disease in which mutations at different loci can produce the same disease phenotype. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
67020
Concept ID:
C0242960
Organism Attribute
17.

Diffuse

A spatial pattern that is spread out, i.e., not localized. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
61387
Concept ID:
C0205219
Qualitative Concept
18.

Neoplasm of brain

A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are metastatic, and they start somewhere else in the body and move to the brain. Brain tumors can cause many symptoms. Some of the most common are. -Headaches, often in the morning . -Nausea and vomiting. -Changes in your ability to talk, hear, or see. -Problems with balance or walking. -Problems with thinking or memory . -Feeling weak or sleepy. -Changes in your mood or behavior. -Seizures. Doctors diagnose brain tumors by doing a neurologic exam and tests including an MRI, CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
14216
Concept ID:
C0006118
Neoplastic Process
19.

Intracranial Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from or metastasizes to structures within the cranium. This includes meningeal and other tumors that occur in the spaces that surround the brain, and neoplasms of the brain. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
287152
Concept ID:
C1527390
Neoplastic Process
20.

Epithelial Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from and is composed of epithelial cells. This category include adenomas, papillomas, and carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
277963
Concept ID:
C1368683
Neoplastic Process
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