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1.

Glucose

A hexose with an aldehyde group; in which each of the 5 remaining carbons other than the aldehyde group has one hydroxyl group in the R,S,R, and R configuration counting from the first hydroxyl containing carbon next to the aldehyde in the straight chain (Fisher) projection; otherwise all carbons have exclusively hydrogens. Occurs mostly as pyran (6-membered oxygen containing ring or oxane) and rarely as furan (5-membered oxygen containing ring) or straight chain. When glucose forms a ring an additional ""anomeric"" asymmetric carbon is created which is denoted as ""alpha"" or ""beta"". For isomers see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
42238
Concept ID:
C0017725
Biologically Active Substance; Carbohydrate; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Hepatic steatosis

The presence of steatosis in the liver. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
398225
Concept ID:
C2711227
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Fatty degeneration

A morphologic finding indicating intracytoplasmic fat accumulation in the liver parenchyma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
57759
Concept ID:
C0152254
Pathologic Function
4.

Insulin Sensitivity

MedGen UID:
452799
Concept ID:
C0920563
Pathologic Function
5.

Glucose intolerance

A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
75760
Concept ID:
C0271650
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Insulin resistance

Increased resistance towards insulin, that is, diminished effectiveness of insulin in reducing blood glucose levels. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
43904
Concept ID:
C0021655
Pathologic Function
7.

Fatty Liver

Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
41974
Concept ID:
C0015695
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Insulin

Insulin (51 aa, ~6 kDa) is encoded by the human INS gene. This protein is involved in the direct regulation of glucose metabolism. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
5827
Concept ID:
C0021641
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
9.

Related

MedGen UID:
619805
Concept ID:
C0445223
Finding
10.

Hyperlipidemia

An elevated lipid concentration in the blood. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
606448
Concept ID:
C0428465
Finding
11.

Insulin resistance

Increased resistance towards insulin, that is, diminished effectiveness of insulin in reducing blood glucose levels. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504630
Concept ID:
CN000801
Finding
12.

Disease Response

The pathologic and/or clinical changes that result from treatment. The changes may include eradication of detectable disease, stabilization of disease, or disease progression. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
309976
Concept ID:
C1704632
Finding
13.

Lipedema

Lipedema is a disorder of adipose tissue characterized by fat legs and orthostatic edema. Characteristically, the buttocks and other parts of the lower extremities are symmetrically enlarged owing to accumulation of excess fat and fluid. The condition affects women almost exclusively and, in most instances, represents an exaggeration of the female form (summary by Hines, 1952). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
5692
Concept ID:
C0020473
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Fat

The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
5132
Concept ID:
C0015677
Lipid; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
15.

Insulins

Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
760846
Concept ID:
C3537244
Pharmacologic Substance
16.

Insulin [EPC]

MedGen UID:
453109
Concept ID:
C1579433
Pharmacologic Substance
17.

Disorder of glucose metabolism

Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
226229
Concept ID:
C1257958
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Sugar

A white crystalline carbohydrate, typically sucrose, used as a sweetener and preservative. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
69157
Concept ID:
C0242209
Carbohydrate; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases

A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
45164
Concept ID:
C0028715
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Metabolic disease

Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body disrupt this process. When this happens, you might have too much of some substances or too little of other ones that you need to stay healthy. . You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function normally. Diabetes is an example. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
44376
Concept ID:
C0025517
Disease or Syndrome
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