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1.

Cimicifuga racemosa preparation

A triterpene-containing herb isolated from the roots and rhizomes of the plant Cimicifuga racemosa (also known as Actaea racemosa). While the mechanism of action of black cohosh is not completely understood, it appears to act as a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In vitro, this preparation has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells. (NCI04) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
208592
Concept ID:
C0771967
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Oxidative phosphorylation

Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
45265
Concept ID:
C0030013
Molecular Function
3.

Vinca alkaloid

A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
22648
Concept ID:
C0042672
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
4.

Phosphorylation

The creation of a phosphate derivative of an organic molecule. This is usually achieved by transferring a phosphate group from ATP via the action of a kinase. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
10742
Concept ID:
C0031715
Molecular Function
5.

Alkaloid

A family or group of nitrogen-containing base compounds primarily derived from plant and animal sources. Many alkaloids are used medicinally, including cancer therapy. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
7968
Concept ID:
C0002062
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Malignant Breast Neoplasm

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm involving the breast. The vast majority of cases are carcinomas arising from the breast parenchyma or the nipple. Malignant breast neoplasms occur more frequently in females than in males. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
651
Concept ID:
C0006142
Neoplastic Process
7.

Tubulin Binding

Tubulin Interaction involves temporary non-covalent binding through intermolecular physical forces of attraction with highly conserved globular alpha, beta, or gamma tubulin protein subunits of microtubules. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
760762
Concept ID:
C3537022
Molecular Function
8.

Indicated

MedGen UID:
731837
Concept ID:
C1444656
Finding
9.

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major histologic type of malignant primary liver neoplasm. It is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. The major risk factors for HCC are chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, prolonged dietary aflatoxin exposure, alcoholic cirrhosis, and cirrhosis due to other causes. Hepatoblastomas comprise 1 to 2% of all malignant neoplasms of childhood, most often occurring in children under 3 years of age. Hepatoblastomas are thought to be derived from undifferentiated hepatocytes (Taniguchi et al., 2002). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
389187
Concept ID:
C2239176
Neoplastic Process
10.

Neoplasm of the breast

Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. In both women and men, the most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the milk ducts (ductal cancer). In women, cancer can also develop in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer). Most men have little or no lobular tissue, so lobular cancer in men is very rare.In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include a lump or thickening in or near the breast; a change in the size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, or retraction (turning inward); and skin irritation, dimpling, or scaliness. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer.In some cases, cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. If breast cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers.A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
264172
Concept ID:
C1458155
Neoplastic Process
11.

Positive

Involving advantage or good. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
254858
Concept ID:
C1446409
Finding
12.

Breast carcinoma

A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
13.

Neoplasm of the liver

A tumor (abnormal growth of tissue) of the liver. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
87520
Concept ID:
C0345904
Neoplastic Process
14.

Plant Preparations

Material prepared from plants. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
183699
Concept ID:
C0949854
Pharmacologic Substance
15.

Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases

A collective term for diseases of the skin and its appendages and of connective tissue. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
59786
Concept ID:
C0175166
Disease or Syndrome
16.

dermopathy

An abnormality of the skin. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
20777
Concept ID:
C0037274
Disease or Syndrome
17.

UPREG

A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
12003
Concept ID:
C0041904
Molecular Function
18.

Neoplasm of the liver

A tumor (abnormal growth of tissue) of the liver. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
9797
Concept ID:
C0023903
Neoplastic Process
19.

Abnormality of the liver

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the liver parenchyma and intrahepatic bile ducts. Representative examples of non-neoplastic disorders include hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholangitis, and polycystic liver disease. Representative examples of neoplastic disorders include hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, lymphoma, and angiosarcoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
9792
Concept ID:
C0023895
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Glycerides

GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
9055
Concept ID:
C0017860
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
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