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1.

Barrett esophagus

An abnormal change (metaplasia) in the cells of the inferior portion of the esophagus. The normal squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus is replaced by metaplastic columnar epithelium. Columnar epithelium refers to a cell type that is typically found in more distal parts of the gastrointestinal system. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506488
Concept ID:
CN117473
Finding
2.

Barrett esophagus

Barrett esophagus, or Barrett metaplasia, describes the phenotypic change of normal esophageal squamous epithelium to a columnar and intestinal-type epithelium. This metaplastic change is important because patients with Barrett esophagus have an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The main cause of Barrett metaplasia is gastroesophageal reflux (GER; 109350). The retrograde movement of acid and bile salts from the stomach into the esophagus in this disease causes prolonged injury to the esophageal epithelium and induces chronic esophagitis, which in turn is believed to trigger the pathologic changes (summary by Wong et al., 2005). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
2551
Concept ID:
C0004763
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Metaplasia

A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
7571
Concept ID:
C0025568
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
4.

Adenocarcinoma

A common cancer characterized by the presence of malignant glandular cells. Morphologically, adenocarcinomas are classified according to the growth pattern (e.g., papillary, alveolar) or according to the secreting product (e.g., mucinous, serous). Representative examples of adenocarcinoma are ductal and lobular breast carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma), colon adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
122
Concept ID:
C0001418
Neoplastic Process
5.

Process

MedGen UID:
923307
Concept ID:
C1951340
Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Prepared

MedGen UID:
881385
Concept ID:
C4082130
Finding
7.

Epithelioma, malignant

MedGen UID:
639977
Concept ID:
C0553707
Neoplastic Process
8.

Transformation

The conversion of a cell from a normal phenotype, which undergoes a limited number of mitotic divisions, into an aberrant phenotype that is immortal and divides indefinitely. Transformed cells no longer retain cell-cycle checkpoints and may ultimately become malignant cancer cells via additional genetic mutations, or damaging environmental events. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
266929
Concept ID:
C1510411
Pathologic Function
9.

Positive

Involving advantage or good. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
254858
Concept ID:
C1446409
Finding
10.

Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

A malignant tumor with glandular differentiation arising predominantly from Barrett mucosa in the lower third of the esophagus. Rare examples of esophageal adenocarcinoma deriving from ectopic gastric mucosa in the upper esophagus have also been reported. Grossly, esophageal adenocarcinomas are similar to esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Microscopically, adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of Barrett esophagus are typically papillary and/or tubular. The prognosis is poor. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
124636
Concept ID:
C0279628
Neoplastic Process
11.

Intestinal metaplasia

A morphologic finding indicating the replacement of epithelial tissue outside the intestines by intestinal-type epithelium. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
83105
Concept ID:
C0334037
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Epithelial Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from and is composed of epithelial cells. This category include adenomas, papillomas, and carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
277963
Concept ID:
C1368683
Neoplastic Process
13.

Disease Attributes

Clinical characteristics of disease or illness. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
199876
Concept ID:
C0752357
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Condition, Preneoplastic

cellular state in which there is evidence of intracellular changes which could lead to a neoplastic condition. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
129147
Concept ID:
C0282313
Neoplastic Process
15.

Course of illness

The worsening of a disease over time. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
116631
Concept ID:
C0242656
Pathologic Function
16.

Carcinomatosis

Carcinoma that has spread diffusely to an anatomic site or throughout the body. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104704
Concept ID:
C0205699
Neoplastic Process
17.

Cribriform Carcinoma

A carcinoma characterized by the presence of a cribriform architectural pattern. Representative examples include the intraductal cribriform breast carcinoma and invasive cribriform breast carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104694
Concept ID:
C0205643
Neoplastic Process
18.

Tubular Adenocarcinoma

An infiltrating adenocarcinoma in which the malignant cells form tubular structures. Representative examples include the tubular breast carcinoma and the gastric tubular adenocarcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
61428
Concept ID:
C0205645
Neoplastic Process
19.

Oxyphilic Adenocarcinoma

An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of large malignant epithelial cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm (oncocytes). Representative examples include thyroid gland oncocytic follicular carcinoma, oncocytic breast carcinoma, and salivary gland oncocytic carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
61427
Concept ID:
C0205642
Neoplastic Process
20.

Undifferentiated Carcinoma

A usually aggressive malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of atypical cells which do not display evidence of glandular, squamous, or transitional cell differentiation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
60010
Concept ID:
C0205698
Neoplastic Process
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