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Items: 16

1.

Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
295297
Concept ID:
C1619738
Disease or Syndrome
2.

natalizumab

A humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin G4 antibody to human INTEGRIN ALPHA4 that binds to the alpha4 subunit of INTEGRIN ALPHA4BETA1 and integrin alpha4beta7. It is used as an IMMUNOLOGIC FACTOR in the treatment of RELAPSING-REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS and CROHN'S DISEASE. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
217321
Concept ID:
C1172734
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Immunologic Factor; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Sclerosis

hardening of the tissue [from CHV]

MedGen UID:
48587
Concept ID:
C0036429
Pathologic Function
4.

Syndrome

A set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
11688
Concept ID:
C0039082
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down or blocks messages between your brain and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include. -Visual disturbances. -Muscle weakness. -Trouble with coordination and balance. -Sensations such as numbness, prickling, or pins and needles . -Thinking and memory problems. No one knows what causes MS. It may be an autoimmune disease, which happens when your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins between the ages of 20 and 40. Usually, the disease is mild, but some people lose the ability to write, speak, or walk. There is no single test for MS. Doctors use a medical history, physical exam, neurological exam, MRI, and other tests to diagnose it. There is no cure for MS, but medicines may slow it down and help control symptoms. Physical and occupational therapy may also help. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
10123
Concept ID:
C0026769
Disease or Syndrome
6.

progressive

MedGen UID:
851455
Concept ID:
CN232553
Finding
7.

Borries syndrome

MedGen UID:
542920
Concept ID:
C0270677
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Leukoencephalopathy

This term describes abnormality of the white matter of the cerebrum resulting from damage to the myelin sheaths of nerve cells. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505209
Concept ID:
CN002135
Finding
9.

Multiple sclerosis susceptibility

Multiple sclerosis is a condition characterized by areas of damage (lesions) on the brain and spinal cord. These lesions are associated with destruction of the covering that protects nerves and promotes the efficient transmission of nerve impulses (the myelin sheath) and damage to nerve cells. Multiple sclerosis is considered an autoimmune disorder; autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs, in this case tissues of the nervous system.Multiple sclerosis usually begins in early adulthood, between ages 20 and 40. The symptoms vary widely, and affected individuals can experience one or more effects of nervous system damage. Multiple sclerosis often causes sensory disturbances in the limbs, including a prickling or tingling sensation (paresthesia), numbness, pain, and itching. Some people experience Lhermitte sign, which is an electrical shock-like sensation that runs down the back and into the limbs. This sensation usually occurs when the head is bent forward. Problems with muscle control are common in people with multiple sclerosis. Affected individuals may have tremors, muscle stiffness (spasticity), exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), weakness or partial paralysis of the muscles of the limbs, difficulty walking, or poor bladder control. Multiple sclerosis is also associated with vision problems, such as blurred or double vision or partial or complete vision loss. Infections that cause fever can make the symptoms worse.There are several forms of multiple sclerosis: relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, primary progressive MS, and progressive relapsing MS. The most common is the relapsing-remitting form, which affects approximately 80 percent of people with multiple sclerosis. Individuals with this form of the condition have periods during which they experience symptoms, called clinical attacks, followed by periods without any symptoms (remission). The triggers of clinical attacks and remissions are unknown. After about 10 years, relapsing-remitting MS usually develops into another form of the disorder called secondary progressive MS. In this form, there are no remissions, and symptoms of the condition continually worsen.Primary progressive MS is the next most common form, affecting approximately 10 to 20 percent of people with multiple sclerosis. This form is characterized by constant symptoms that worsen over time, with no clinical attacks or remissions. Primary progressive MS typically begins later than the other forms, around age 40.Progressive relapsing MS is a rare form of multiple sclerosis that initially appears like primary progressive MS, with constant symptoms. However, people with progressive relapsing MS also experience clinical attacks of more severe symptoms.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
429785
Concept ID:
CN031763
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Progressive leukoencephalopathy

Leukoencephalopathy that gets more severe with time. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
344402
Concept ID:
C1855010
Finding
11.

Multifocal fibrosclerosis

Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a disorder in which inflammation and extensive scar tissue (fibrosis) occur in the back of the abdominal cavity, behind (retro-) the membrane that surrounds the organs of the digestive system (the peritoneum). This area is known as the retroperitoneal space. Retroperitoneal fibrosis can occur at any age but appears most frequently between the ages of 40 and 60.The inflamed tissue characteristic of retroperitoneal fibrosis typically causes gradually increasing pain in the lower abdomen, back, or side. Other symptoms arise from blockage of blood flow to and from various parts of the lower body, due to the development of scar tissue around blood vessels. The fibrosis usually develops first around the aorta, which is the large blood vessel that distributes blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Additional blood vessels including the inferior vena cava, which returns blood from the lower part of the body to the heart, may also be involved. Obstruction of blood flow to and from the legs can result in pain, changes in color, and swelling in these limbs. Impairment of blood flow in the intestines may lead to death (necrosis) of intestinal tissue, severe pain, and excessive bleeding (hemorrhage). In men, reduced blood flow back toward the heart (venous flow) may cause swelling of the scrotum.Because the kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal space, retroperitoneal fibrosis may result in blockage of the ureters, which are tubes that carry urine from each kidney to the bladder. Such blockages can lead to decreased or absent urine flow and kidney failure. When the kidneys fail, toxic substances build up in the blood and tissues, leading to nausea, vomiting, weight loss, itching, a low number of red blood cells (anemia), and changes in brain function.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
105414
Concept ID:
C0494949
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Leukoencephalopathy

Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
78722
Concept ID:
C0270612
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Progressive

Advancing in extent or severity. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
64400
Concept ID:
C0205329
Functional Concept
14.

Multifocal

Arising from, pertaining to, or having many locations. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
59976
Concept ID:
C0205292
Spatial Concept
15.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
7327
Concept ID:
C0023524
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Antegren

MedGen UID:
220521
Concept ID:
C1173150
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Immunologic Factor; Pharmacologic Substance
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