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1.

Shock

Shock happens when not enough blood and oxygen can get to your organs and tissues. It causes very low blood pressure and may be life threatening. It often happens along with a serious injury. There are several kinds of shock. Hypovolemic shock happens when you lose a lot of blood or fluids. Causes include internal or external bleeding, dehydration, burns, and severe vomiting and/or diarrhea. Septic shock is caused by infections in the bloodstream. A severe allergic reaction can cause anaphylactic shock. An insect bite or sting might cause it. Cardiogenic shock happens when the heart cannot pump blood effectively. This may happen after a heart attack. Neurogenic shock is caused by damage to the nervous system. Symptoms of shock include. -Confusion or lack of alertness. -Loss of consciousness. -Sudden and ongoing rapid heartbeat. -Sweating. -Pale skin. -A weak pulse. -Rapid breathing. -Decreased or no urine output. -Cool hands and feet. Shock is a life-threatening medical emergency and it is important to get help right away. Treatment of shock depends on the cause. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
20738
Concept ID:
C0036974
Pathologic Function
2.

Visual Suppression

MedGen UID:
526147
Concept ID:
C0221103
Pathologic Function
3.

Parkinson disease, late-onset

Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
463618
Concept ID:
C3160718
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Pathogenesis

specific processes that generate the ability of an organism to cause disease [from CHV]

MedGen UID:
195936
Concept ID:
C0699748
Pathologic Function
5.

Parkinson disease

Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
10590
Concept ID:
C0030567
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
226255
Concept ID:
C1258062
Molecular Function
7.

Magnesiocard

MedGen UID:
195605
Concept ID:
C0677518
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Pharmacologic Substance
8.

MK-801

MedGen UID:
167242
Concept ID:
C0813872
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
9.

Intropin

MedGen UID:
147406
Concept ID:
C0721081
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
10.

Drug Interactions

A change in the way a drug acts in the body when taken with certain other drugs, herbals, or foods, or when taken with certain medical conditions. Drug interactions may cause the drug to be more or less effective, or cause effects on the body that are not expected. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
146913
Concept ID:
C0687133
Molecular Function
11.

Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists

Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
116699
Concept ID:
C0242909
Pharmacologic Substance
12.

Excitatory Amino Acid Agents

Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
116696
Concept ID:
C0242900
Pharmacologic Substance
13.

Neurotransmitter Agents

Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
69321
Concept ID:
C0243051
Pharmacologic Substance
14.

Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists

Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
66180
Concept ID:
C0242910
Pharmacologic Substance
15.

Dopamine

A monoamine compound with positive inotropic activity. Dopamine is a naturally occurring catecholamine formed by decarboxylation of dehydroxyphenylalanine and a precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine binds to alpha-1 and beta-1 adrenergic receptors. Mediated through myocardial beta-1 adrenergic receptors, dopamine increase heart rate and force, thereby increasing cardiac output. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor stimulation on vascular smooth muscle, leads to vasoconstriction and results in an increase in systemic vascular resistance. Stimulation of dopaminergic receptors in renal vasculature, leads to renal blood vessel dilation, and an increase in glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, sodium excretion, and urine output. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
41644
Concept ID:
C0013030
Biologically Active Substance; Neuroreactive Substance or Biogenic Amine; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
16.

Dizocilpine Maleate

A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
37173
Concept ID:
C0079246
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
17.

Dizocilpine

10,11-dihydro-5-methyldibenzocyclohepten -5,10-imine; PCP analog, anticonvulsant, and excitatory aminoacid antagonist that acts on the calcium channel site of NMDA receptors; USP lists as a neuroprotectant. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
37172
Concept ID:
C0079245
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
18.

N-Methylaspartate

An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
36348
Concept ID:
C0079883
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Biologically Active Substance; Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Up-Regulation (Physiology)

A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
12003
Concept ID:
C0041904
Cell Function; Molecular Function
20.

Mg-5-Longoral

MedGen UID:
9851
Concept ID:
C0024470
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Pharmacologic Substance
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