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1.

Noonan syndrome

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
18073
Concept ID:
C0028326
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Syndrome

A characteristic symptom complex. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
11688
Concept ID:
C0039082
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Proportionate short stature; mild intellectual disability; dysmorphic facial features; precocious puberty

MedGen UID:
850705
Concept ID:
CN231399
Finding
4.

Borries syndrome

MedGen UID:
542920
Concept ID:
C0270677
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Noonan syndrome 7

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
462320
Concept ID:
C3150970
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Noonan syndrome 6

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
413028
Concept ID:
C2750732
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Haploinsufficiency

A copy number variation that results in reduced GENE DOSAGE due to any loss-of-function mutation. The loss of heterozygosity is associated with abnormal phenotypes or diseased states because the remaining gene is insufficient. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
424691
Concept ID:
C2936267
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
8.

Leukemia

A cancer of the blood and bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of leukocytes. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
9725
Concept ID:
C0023418
Neoplastic Process
9.

Acetylation

Acetylation involves the covalent linkage of an acetyl group into an organic molecule. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
7840
Concept ID:
C0001038
Molecular Function
10.

Ptosis

Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Anatomical Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
11.

Process

MedGen UID:
923307
Concept ID:
C1951340
Pharmacologic Substance
12.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests at age 2-3 years or by first grade at the latest. The main symptoms are distractibility, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and often trouble organizing tasks and projects, difficulty going to sleep, and social problems from being aggressive, loud, or impatient. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506017
Concept ID:
CN006126
Finding
13.

Height / growth measure

The height of a person while standing. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
452503
Concept ID:
C0424639
Finding
14.

Short stature, idiopathic, X-linked

Idiopathic short stature is usually defined as a height below the third percentile for chronological age or minus 2 standard deviations (SD) of national height standards in the absence of specific causative disorders (Rao et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of quantitative trait loci for stature, see STQTL1 (606255). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
375584
Concept ID:
C1845118
Congenital Abnormality
15.

Growth control, Y-chromosome influenced

MedGen UID:
358267
Concept ID:
C1868676
Finding
16.

Short stature, idiopathic, autosomal

MedGen UID:
346958
Concept ID:
C1858656
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Ras Signaling Pathway

Ras activates many signaling cascades. Here we illustrate some of the well-characterized cascades in a generic compilation of effector molecules. The effectors mediate Ras stimulation to a diverse set of cellular signals. Many of these signals are interpreted differently depending on the cell type or microenvironment receiving the stimulus. Not all of these effectors are activated in any given cell type. The primary method of activation is to promote the translocation of the molecule to the plasma membrane where additional interactions lead to the activation of the molecule. RalGDS is a Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) for Ral but also has other independent functions. RalGDS activates RalA/B-related small GTPases. RalBP1 is a GTPase activating protein that leads to the inhibition of the Rac and CDC42 GTPases. Ral can also interact with phospholipase D1 (PLD1) that can also be activated by RhoA. Ras stimulation of the lipid kinase activity of PI3K occurs through an interaction with the p110 catalytic subunit. PI3K phosphorylates the D3 position of phosphatidylinositides. In this example Pip2 is converted to PIP3. PIP3 stimulates the AKT/PKB kinase and several of the Rac-GEFs such as Sos1 AND Vav. AKT activation inhibits apoptosis by inhibiting the actions of Bad, Caspase 9, and AFX. AKT further hinders apoptosis by phosphorylating the IkB repressor of NFkB. Stimulus of Rac causes, among other things, the activation of NFkB. Ras also stimulates the mitogen-activated kinases ERK1/2 via the Raf1 cascade. The Erk kinases translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate various transcription factors such as ELK1. [from NCI_BioC]

MedGen UID:
271078
Concept ID:
C1514731
Molecular Function
18.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
19.

Monocytic Leukemia

MedGen UID:
109338
Concept ID:
C0598894
Neoplastic Process
20.

Hyperactivity

Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding; Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
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