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Items: 11

1.

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood

MedGen UID:
90925
Concept ID:
C0338488
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hemiplegia

Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
9196
Concept ID:
C0018991
Sign or Symptom
3.

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood 2

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a rare syndrome characterized by infantile onset of episodic hemi-or quadriplegia. Most cases are accompanied by dystonic posturing, choreoathetoid movements, abnormal ocular movements, developmental delay, and progressive cognitive impairment (summary by Heinzen et al., 2012). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of alternating hemiplegia of childhood, see AHC1 (104290). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766702
Concept ID:
C3553788
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Congenital adrenal hypoplasia, X-linked

X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (X-linked AHC) is characterized by infantile-onset acute primary adrenal insufficiency at an average age of three weeks in approximately 60% of affected individuals. Onset in approximately 40% is in childhood. A few individuals present in adulthood with delayed-onset adrenal failure or partial hypogonadism due to partial forms of X-linked AHC. Adrenal insufficiency typically presents acutely in male infants with vomiting, feeding difficulty, dehydration, and shock caused by a salt-wasting episode. Hypoglycemia (sometimes presenting with seizures) or isolated salt loss may be the first symptom of X-linked AHC. Cortisol may be low or within the normal range, which is inappropriately low for a sick child. In older children, adrenal failure may be precipitated by intercurrent illness or stress. If untreated, adrenal insufficiency is rapidly lethal as a result of hyperkalemia, acidosis, hypoglycemia, and shock. Affected males typically have delayed puberty (onset age >14 years) or arrested puberty caused by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Early pubertal development with pubertal arrest has been reported in some cases. Males with classic X-linked AHC are infertile despite treatment with exogenous gonadotropin therapy or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), although testicular sperm extraction-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (TESE-ICSI) has been successful in one case. Carrier females may very occasionally have symptoms of adrenal insufficiency or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a result of skewed X-chromosome inactivation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
87442
Concept ID:
C0342482
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
5.

Congenital adrenal hypoplasia

A type of adrenal hypoplasia with congenital onset. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
65094
Concept ID:
C0220766
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
6.

Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome

GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is a disorder affecting the nervous system that can have a variety of neurological signs and symptoms. Approximately 90 percent of affected individuals have a form of the disorder often referred to as common GLUT1 deficiency syndrome. These individuals generally have frequent seizures (epilepsy) beginning in the first months of life. In newborns, the first sign of the disorder may be involuntary eye movements that are rapid and irregular. Babies with common GLUT1 deficiency syndrome have a normal head size at birth, but growth of the brain and skull is often slow, which can result in an abnormally small head size (microcephaly). People with this form of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome may have developmental delay or intellectual disability. Most affected individuals also have other neurological problems, such as stiffness caused by abnormal tensing of the muscles (spasticity), difficulty in coordinating movements (ataxia), and speech difficulties (dysarthria). Some experience episodes of confusion, lack of energy (lethargy), headaches, or muscle twitches (myoclonus), particularly during periods without food (fasting).About 10 percent of individuals with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome have a form of the disorder often known as non-epileptic GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, which is usually less severe than the common form. People with the non-epileptic form do not have seizures, but they may still have developmental delay and intellectual disability. Most have movement problems such as ataxia or involuntary tensing of various muscles (dystonia); the movement problems may be more pronounced than in the common form.Several conditions that were originally given other names have since been recognized to be variants of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome. These include paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (dystonia 9); paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (dystonia 18); and certain types of epilepsy. In rare cases, people with variants of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome produce abnormal red blood cells and have uncommon forms of a blood condition known as anemia, which is characterized by a shortage of red blood cells.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
337833
Concept ID:
C1847501
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Autosomal dominant inheritance

Autosomal dominant inheritance refers to genetic conditions that occur when a mutation is present in one copy of a given gene (i.e., the person is heterozygous). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Genetic Function; Intellectual Product
8.

Paralysis

Paralysis is the loss of muscle function in part of your body. It happens when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. Paralysis can be complete or partial. It can occur on one or both sides of your body. It can also occur in just one area, or it can be widespread. Paralysis of the lower half of your body, including both legs, is called paraplegia. Paralysis of the arms and legs is quadriplegia. . Most paralysis is due to strokes or injuries such as spinal cord injury or a broken neck. Other causes of paralysis include. -Nerve diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. - Autoimmune diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. - Bell's palsy, which affects muscles in the face. Polio used to be a cause of paralysis, but polio no longer occurs in the U.S.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
105510
Concept ID:
C0522224
Finding
9.

Spastic hemiparesis

Unilateral paresis (weakness) with spasticity of the affected muscles and increased tendon reflexes. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
56345
Concept ID:
C0154694
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
10.

GLUT1 deficiency syndrome 1

The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1-DS) is now known to be a continuum that includes the classic phenotype as well as dystonia 9, dystonia 18, atypical childhood absence epilepsy, myoclonic astatic epilepsy, and paroxysmal non-epileptic findings such as intermittent ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and alternating hemiplegia. The classic phenotype is characterized by infantile-onset seizures, delayed neurologic development, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures begin before age two years in approximately 90% and later in approximately 10%. Several seizure types occur: generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified. The frequency, severity, and type of seizures vary among affected individuals and are not related to disease severity. Cognitive impairment, ranging from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability, is typical. The complex movement disorder, characterized by ataxia, dystonia, and chorea, may occur in any combination and may be continuous, paroxysmal, or continuous with fluctuations in severity influenced by environmental factors such as fasting, fever, and intercurrent infection. Symptoms often improve substantially when a ketogenic diet is started. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
893306
Concept ID:
CN030711
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood 1

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a rare syndrome of episodic hemi- or quadriplegia lasting minutes to days. Most cases are accompanied by dystonic posturing, choreoathetoid movements, nystagmus, other ocular motor abnormalities, autonomic disturbances, and progressive cognitive impairment (Mikati et al., 1992). The disorder may mimic or overlap with other disorders, including familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM1; 141500) and GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (606777) (Rotstein et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood See also AHC2 (614820), caused by mutation in the ATP1A3 gene (182350). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
762361
Concept ID:
C3549447
Disease or Syndrome
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