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1.

Carcinoma

A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2867
Concept ID:
C0007097
Neoplastic Process
2.

Carcinoma

MedGen UID:
910818
Concept ID:
CN241453
Finding
3.

Carcinoma of gallbladder

A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the gallbladder. It is usually associated with the presence of gallstones. Clinical symptoms are not specific and usually present late in the course. Morphologically, most gallbladder carcinomas are adenocarcinomas; squamous cell carcinomas, adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring carcinomas, and undifferentiated carcinomas can also occur. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
116001
Concept ID:
C0235782
Neoplastic Process
4.

Formalin

A saturated solution of formaldehyde, water, and typically another agent, most commonly methanol. In its typical form, formalin is 37% formaldehyde by weight (40% by volume), 6-13% methanol, and the rest water. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
215328
Concept ID:
C0949307
Hazardous or Poisonous Substance; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
5.

Cholangiocarcinoma

A carcinoma that arises from the intrahepatic biliary tree (intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma) or from the junction, or adjacent to the junction, of the right and left hepatic ducts (hilar cholangiocarcinoma). Grossly, the malignant lesions are solid, nodular, and grayish. Morphologically, the vast majority of cases are adenocarcinomas. Signs and symptoms include malaise, weight loss, right upper quadrant abdominal pain, and night sweats. Early detection is difficult and the prognosis is generally poor. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
60210
Concept ID:
C0206698
Neoplastic Process
6.

Diagnosis

The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
8354
Concept ID:
C0011900
Finding
7.

Cholangiocarcinoma, susceptibility to

Carcinomas of the biliary tract are aggressive malignancies, with 5-year survival of less than 10%. These carcinomas arise throughout the biliary tree and are anatomically classified as either intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Gallbladder carcinomas also arise from the biliary tree but have distinct natural histories compared to cholangiocarcinomas, suggesting different underlying tumor biology. Cholangiocarcinoma incidence varies widely between geographic regions, reflecting the impact of different underlying etiologies. In endemic areas, liver fluke infections by O. viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, both group I carcinogens, represent the major risk factor for cholangiocarcinomas. In nonendemic regions, other risk factors, including choledochal cysts (603003), hepatolithiasis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis (613806), are likely contributors (summary by Chan-on et al., 2013). Overall, the majority of patients lack such identifiable risk factors (summary by Jiao et al., 2013). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
816486
Concept ID:
C3810156
Finding
8.

Neoplasm

A malignant tumor at the original site of growth. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
227011
Concept ID:
C1306459
Neoplastic Process
9.

Mass of body structure

A benign or malignant pathologic structure in any part of the body, resulting from a neoplastic accumulation of cells, inflammatory cells, or cystic changes. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108287
Concept ID:
C0577559
Finding
10.

Heterogeneous

The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
67020
Concept ID:
C0242960
Organism Attribute
11.

Epithelial Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from and is composed of epithelial cells. This category include adenomas, papillomas, and carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
277963
Concept ID:
C1368683
Neoplastic Process
12.

Carcinomatosis

Carcinoma that has spread diffusely to an anatomic site or throughout the body. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104704
Concept ID:
C0205699
Neoplastic Process
13.

Cribriform Carcinoma

A carcinoma characterized by the presence of a cribriform architectural pattern. Representative examples include the intraductal cribriform breast carcinoma and invasive cribriform breast carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104694
Concept ID:
C0205643
Neoplastic Process
14.

Tubular Adenocarcinoma

An infiltrating adenocarcinoma in which the malignant cells form tubular structures. Representative examples include the tubular breast carcinoma and the gastric tubular adenocarcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
61428
Concept ID:
C0205645
Neoplastic Process
15.

Oxyphilic Adenocarcinoma

An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of large malignant epithelial cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm (oncocytes). Representative examples include thyroid gland oncocytic follicular carcinoma, oncocytic breast carcinoma, and salivary gland oncocytic carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
61427
Concept ID:
C0205642
Neoplastic Process
16.

Undifferentiated Carcinoma

A usually aggressive malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of atypical cells which do not display evidence of glandular, squamous, or transitional cell differentiation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
60010
Concept ID:
C0205698
Neoplastic Process
17.

Sarcomatoid Carcinoma

A malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by the presence of spindle cells and anaplastic morphologic features. Giant cells and a sarcomatous component may also be present. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
60009
Concept ID:
C0205697
Neoplastic Process
18.

Carcinoma, anaplastic

MedGen UID:
60008
Concept ID:
C0205696
Neoplastic Process
19.

Neoplasm of the gallbladder

A benign or malignant neoplasm affecting the gallbladder. Representative examples of benign neoplasms include lipoma, leiomyoma, and neurofibroma. Representative examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
42134
Concept ID:
C0016978
Neoplastic Process
20.

Biliary tract neoplasm

A tumor (abnormal growth of tissue) of the biliary system. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
14118
Concept ID:
C0005426
Neoplastic Process
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