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1.

Thyroid carcinoma

A carcinoma arising from the thyroid gland. It is usually an adenocarcinoma and includes the following main subtypes: follicular, papillary, medullary, poorly differentiated, and anaplastic. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
107811
Concept ID:
C0549473
Neoplastic Process
2.

Carcinoma

A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2867
Concept ID:
C0007097
Neoplastic Process
3.

Carcinoma

MedGen UID:
910818
Concept ID:
CN241453
Finding
4.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

The presence of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505394
Concept ID:
CN002618
Finding
5.

Thyroid carcinoma

The presence of a carcinoma of the thyroid gland. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505391
Concept ID:
CN002613
Finding
6.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

Nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) comprises thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin and accounts for more than 95% of all thyroid cancer cases. The remaining cancers originate from parafollicular cells (medullary thyroid cancer, MTC; 155240). NMTC is classified into 4 groups: papillary, follicular (188470), Hurthle cell (607464), and anaplastic. Approximately 5% of NMTC is hereditary, occurring as a component of a familial cancer syndrome (e.g., familial adenomatous polyposis, 175100; Carney complex, 160980) or as a primary feature (familial NMTC or FNMTC). Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common histologic subtype of FNMTC, accounting for approximately 85% of cases (summary by Vriens et al., 2009). PTC is characterized by distinctive nuclear alterations including pseudoinclusions, grooves, and chromatin clearing. PTCs smaller than 1 cm are referred to as papillary microcarcinomas. These tumors have been identified in up to 35% of individuals at autopsy, suggesting that they may be extremely common although rarely clinically relevant. PTC can also be multifocal but is typically slow-growing with a tendency to spread to lymph nodes and usually has an excellent prognosis (summary by Bonora et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer Other susceptibilities to nonmedullary thyroid cancer include NMTC2 (188470), caused by mutation in the SRGAP1 gene (606523); NMTC3 (606240), mapped to chromosome 2q21; NMTC4 (616534), caused by mutation in the FOXE1 gene (602617); and NMTC5 (616535), caused by mutation in the HABP2 gene (603924). A susceptibility locus for familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma with or without cell oxyphilia (TCO; 603386) has been mapped to chromosome 19p. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
66773
Concept ID:
C0238463
Neoplastic Process
7.

Malignancies

MedGen UID:
924235
Concept ID:
C4282132
Neoplastic Process
8.

Diagnosis

The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
8354
Concept ID:
C0011900
Finding
9.

Papillary Adenocarcinoma

A morphologic variant of adenocarcinoma. It is characterized by the presence of a papillary growth pattern. Representative examples include thyroid gland papillary carcinoma, invasive papillary breast carcinoma, and ovarian serous surface papillary adenocarcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
123
Concept ID:
C0001420
Neoplastic Process
10.

Pathogenesis

The pathologic, physiologic, or biochemical mechanism resulting in the development of a disease or morbid process. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
195936
Concept ID:
C0699748
Pathologic Function
11.

Epithelial Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from and is composed of epithelial cells. This category include adenomas, papillomas, and carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
277963
Concept ID:
C1368683
Neoplastic Process
12.

Carcinomatosis

Carcinoma that has spread diffusely to an anatomic site or throughout the body. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104704
Concept ID:
C0205699
Neoplastic Process
13.

Cribriform Carcinoma

A carcinoma characterized by the presence of a cribriform architectural pattern. Representative examples include the intraductal cribriform breast carcinoma and invasive cribriform breast carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104694
Concept ID:
C0205643
Neoplastic Process
14.

Thyroid Gland Papillary and Follicular Carcinoma

A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
64631
Concept ID:
C0206683
Neoplastic Process
15.

Thyroid cancer, follicular

Nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) comprises thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin and accounts for more than 95% of all thyroid cancer cases. The remaining cancers originate from parafollicular cells (medullary thyroid cancer, MTC; 155240). NMTC is classified into 4 groups: papillary, follicular, Hurthle cell (607464), and anaplastic. Approximately 5% of NMTC is hereditary, occurring as a minor component of a familial cancer syndrome (e.g., familial adenomatous polyposis, 175100, Carney complex, 160980) or as a primary feature (familial NMTC or FNMTC). Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common histologic subtype of FNMTC, accounting for approximately 85% of cases (summary by Vriens et al., 2009). Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) accounts for approximately 15% of NMTC and is defined by invasive features that result in infiltration of blood vessels and/or full penetration of the tumor capsule, in the absence of the nuclear alterations that characterize papillary carcinoma. FTC is rarely multifocal and usually does not metastasize to the regional lymph nodes but tends to spread via the bloodstream to the lung and bones. An important histologic variant of FTC is the oncocytic (Hurthle cell, oxyphilic) follicular carcinoma composed of eosinophilic cells replete with mitochondria (summary by Bonora et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NMTC, see NMTC1 (188550). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
64630
Concept ID:
C0206682
Neoplastic Process
16.

Tubular Adenocarcinoma

An infiltrating adenocarcinoma in which the malignant cells form tubular structures. Representative examples include the tubular breast carcinoma and the gastric tubular adenocarcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
61428
Concept ID:
C0205645
Neoplastic Process
17.

Oxyphilic Adenocarcinoma

An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of large malignant epithelial cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm (oncocytes). Representative examples include thyroid gland oncocytic follicular carcinoma, oncocytic breast carcinoma, and salivary gland oncocytic carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
61427
Concept ID:
C0205642
Neoplastic Process
18.

Squamous Cell Neoplasm

A neoplasm that is composed of squamous epithelial cells. Squamous cell carcinoma is a representative example. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
60219
Concept ID:
C0206720
Neoplastic Process
19.

Undifferentiated Carcinoma

A usually aggressive malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of atypical cells which do not display evidence of glandular, squamous, or transitional cell differentiation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
60010
Concept ID:
C0205698
Neoplastic Process
20.

Sarcomatoid Carcinoma

A malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by the presence of spindle cells and anaplastic morphologic features. Giant cells and a sarcomatous component may also be present. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
60009
Concept ID:
C0205697
Neoplastic Process
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