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Hepatic steatosis

MedGen UID:
398225
Concept ID:
C2711227
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Fatty infiltration of liver; Fatty liver; Liver steatosis; Steatosis
SNOMED CT: Steatohepatitis (442191002); Steatosis of liver (197321007)
 
HPO: HP:0001397

Definition

Inflammation of the liver related to lipid accumulation in fatty liver. [from MeSH]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHepatic steatosis

Conditions with this feature

Hereditary fructosuria
MedGen UID:
42105
Concept ID:
C0016751
Disease or Syndrome
Following dietary exposure to fructose, sucrose, or sorbitol, untreated hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is characterized by metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia, lactic acidemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypermagnesemia, hyperalaninemia) and clinical findings (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distress; chronic growth restriction/failure to thrive). Untreated HFI typically first manifests when fructose- and sucrose-containing foods are introduced in the course of weaning young infants from breast milk. If large quantities of fructose are ingested, the infant may acutely develop lethargy, seizures, and/or progressive coma. Untreated HFI may result in renal and hepatic failure. If identified and treated before permanent organ injury occurs, individuals with HFI can experience a normal quality of life and life expectancy.
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency
MedGen UID:
53088
Concept ID:
C0043208
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency ranges from the infantile-onset form (Wolman disease) to later-onset forms collectively known as cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD). Wolman disease is characterized by infantile-onset malabsorption that results in malnutrition, storage of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in hepatic macrophages that results in hepatomegaly and liver disease, and adrenal gland calcification that results in adrenal cortical insufficiency. Unless successfully treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), infants with classic Wolman disease do not survive beyond age one year. CESD may present in childhood in a manner similar to Wolman disease or later in life with such findings as serum lipid abnormalities, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or elevated liver enzymes long before a diagnosis is made. The morbidity of late-onset CESD results from atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease, stroke), liver disease (e.g., altered liver function ± jaundice, steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and related complications of esophageal varices, and/or liver failure), complications of secondary hypersplenism (i.e., anemia and/or thrombocytopenia), and/or malabsorption. Individuals with CESD may have a normal life span depending on the severity of disease manifestations.
Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
65086
Concept ID:
C0220710
Disease or Syndrome
Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) is one of the enzymes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation, which fuels hepatic ketogenesis, a major source of energy once hepatic glycogen stores become depleted during prolonged fasting and periods of higher energy demands. In a typical clinical scenario, a previously healthy child with MCAD deficiency presents with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, vomiting, and lethargy triggered by a common illness. Seizures may occur. Hepatomegaly and liver disease are often present during an acute episode, which can quickly progress to coma and death. Children are normal at birth and – if not identified through newborn screening – typically present between ages three and 24 months; later presentation, even into adulthood, is possible. The prognosis is excellent once the diagnosis is established and frequent feedings are instituted to avoid any prolonged period of fasting.
Triglyceride storage disease with ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
82780
Concept ID:
C0268238
Disease or Syndrome
Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome is a condition in which fats (lipids) are stored abnormally in the body. Affected individuals cannot break down certain fats called triglycerides, and these fats accumulate in organs and tissues, including skin, liver, muscles, intestine, eyes, and ears. People with this condition also have dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis), which is usually present at birth. Additional features of this condition include an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), clouding of the lens of the eyes (cataracts), difficulty with coordinating movements (ataxia), hearing loss, short stature, muscle weakness (myopathy), involuntary movement of the eyes (nystagmus), and mild intellectual disability.The signs and symptoms vary greatly among individuals with Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. Some people may have ichthyosis only, while others may have problems affecting many areas of the body.
Alstrom syndrome
MedGen UID:
78675
Concept ID:
C0268425
Disease or Syndrome
Alström syndrome is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, obesity, progressive sensorineural hearing impairment, dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy, the insulin resistance syndrome, and multiple organ failure. Wide clinical variability is observed among affected individuals, even within the same family. Cone-rod dystrophy presents as progressive visual impairment, photophobia, and nystagmus usually starting between birth and age 15 months. Many individuals lose all perception of light by the end of the second decade, but a minority retain the ability to read large print into the third decade. Children usually have normal birth weight but develop truncal obesity during their first year. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss presents in the first decade in as many as 70% of individuals. Hearing loss may progress to the severe or moderately severe range (40-70 db) by the end of the first to second decade. Insulin resistance is typically accompanied by the skin changes of acanthosis nigricans, and proceeds to type 2 diabetes in the majority by the third decade. Nearly all demonstrate associated dyslipidemia. Other endocrine abnormalities can include hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in boys, and polycystic ovaries in girls. More than 60% of individuals with Alström syndrome develop cardiac failure as a result of dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy. About 50% of individuals have delay in early developmental milestones; intelligence is normal. Liver involvement includes elevation of transaminases, steatosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and steatohepatitis. Portal hypertension and cirrhosis can lead to hepatic encephalopathy and life-threatening esophageal varices. Pulmonary dysfunction and severe renal disease may also develop. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) can occur as early as the late teens.
Glutaric aciduria, type 2
MedGen UID:
75696
Concept ID:
C0268596
Disease or Syndrome
Glutaric aciduria II (GA2) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of fatty acid, amino acid, and choline metabolism. It differs from GA I (GA1; 231670) in that multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies result in large excretion not only of glutaric acid, but also of lactic, ethylmalonic, butyric, isobutyric, 2-methyl-butyric, and isovaleric acids. GA II results from deficiency of any 1 of 3 molecules: the alpha (ETFA) and beta (ETFB) subunits of electron transfer flavoprotein, and electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH). The clinical picture of GA II due to the different defects appears to be indistinguishable; each defect can lead to a range of mild or severe cases, depending presumably on the location and nature of the intragenic lesion, i.e., mutation, in each case (Goodman, 1993; Olsen et al., 2003). The heterogeneous clinical features of patients with MADD fall into 3 classes: a neonatal-onset form with congenital anomalies (type I), a neonatal-onset form without congenital anomalies (type II), and a late-onset form (type III). The neonatal-onset forms are usually fatal and are characterized by severe nonketotic hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, multisystem involvement, and excretion of large amounts of fatty acid- and amino acid-derived metabolites. Symptoms and age at presentation of late-onset MADD are highly variable and characterized by recurrent episodes of lethargy, vomiting, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and hepatomegaly often preceded by metabolic stress. Muscle involvement in the form of pain, weakness, and lipid storage myopathy also occurs. The organic aciduria in patients with the late-onset form of MADD is often intermittent and only evident during periods of illness or catabolic stress (summary by Frerman and Goodman, 2001). Importantly, riboflavin treatment has been shown to ameliorate the symptoms and metabolic profiles in many MADD patients, particularly those with type III, the late-onset and mildest form (Liang et al., 2009).
Visceral steatosis
MedGen UID:
90962
Concept ID:
C0341447
Pathologic Function
Renal carnitine transport defect
MedGen UID:
90999
Concept ID:
C0342788
Disease or Syndrome
Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is a disorder of the carnitine cycle that results in defective fatty acid oxidation. It encompasses a broad clinical spectrum including: Metabolic decompensation in infancy typically presenting between age three months and two years with episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, poor feeding, irritability, lethargy, hepatomegaly, elevated liver transaminases, and hyperammonemia triggered by fasting or common illnesses such as upper respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis; Childhood myopathy involving heart and skeletal muscle with onset between age two and four years; Pregnancy-related decreased stamina or exacerbation of cardiac arrhythmia; Fatigability in adulthood; Absence of symptoms. The latter two categories often include mothers diagnosed with CDSP after newborn screening has identified low carnitine levels in their infants.
Bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme deficiency
MedGen UID:
137982
Concept ID:
C0342870
Pathologic Function
D-bifunctional protein deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (264470), caused by mutation in the ACOX1 gene (609751) on chromosome 17q25. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; 300100), Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD; see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). DBP deficiency has been classified into 3 subtypes depending upon the deficient enzyme activity. Type I is a deficiency of both 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; type II is a deficiency of hydratase activity alone; and type III is a deficiency of dehydrogenase activity alone. Virtually all patients with types I, II, and III have a severe phenotype characterized by infantile-onset of hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal facial features, and most die before age 2 years. McMillan et al. (2012) proposed a type IV deficiency on the basis of less severe features; these patients have a phenotype reminiscent of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS1; 233400). Pierce et al. (2010) noted that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically and suggested that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed.
Patent ductus venosus
MedGen UID:
91033
Concept ID:
C0344688
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital defect of the vasculature such that there is a shunt (by-pass) of blood directly from the portal vein to the vena cava (i.e., the blood from the portal vein is not filtered through the liver).
Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type I
MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
PMM2-CDG (CDG-Ia) (previously known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1a), the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three types: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia-intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The three types notwithstanding, clinical presentation and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly involved adults. Clinical presentations tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem type, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, failure to thrive, and impaired growth are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical presentations are observed: (1) a non-fatal neurologic form with strabismus, psychomotor retardation, and cerebellar hypoplasia in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade and (2) a neurologic-multivisceral form with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia-intellectual disability type, with onset between age three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability type, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, thoracic and spinal deformities progress, and premature aging is observed; females lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hyperglycemia-induced growth hormone release, hyperprolactinemia, insulin resistance, and coagulopathy may occur. An increased risk for deep venous thrombosis is present.
Deficiency of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase
MedGen UID:
266222
Concept ID:
C1291230
Disease or Syndrome
3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during prolonged periods without food (fasting).Initial signs and symptoms of this disorder typically occur during infancy or early childhood and can include poor appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and lack of energy (lethargy). Affected individuals can also have muscle weakness (hypotonia), liver problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), and abnormally high levels of insulin (hyperinsulinism). Insulin controls the amount of sugar that moves from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Individuals with 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency are also at risk for complications such as seizures, life-threatening heart and breathing problems, coma, and sudden death. This condition may explain some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which is defined as unexplained death in babies younger than 1 year.Problems related to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency can be triggered by periods of fasting or by illnesses such as viral infections. This disorder is sometimes mistaken for Reye syndrome, a severe disorder that may develop in children while they appear to be recovering from viral infections such as chicken pox or flu. Most cases of Reye syndrome are associated with the use of aspirin during these viral infections.
Familial partial lipodystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
354526
Concept ID:
C1720860
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution beginning in late childhood or early adult life. Affected individuals gradually lose fat from the upper and lower extremities and the gluteal and truncal regions, resulting in a muscular appearance with prominent superficial veins. In some patients, adipose tissue accumulates on the face and neck, causing a double chin, fat neck, or cushingoid appearance. Metabolic abnormalities include insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosis nigricans and hypertriglyceridemia; hirsutism and menstrual abnormalities occur infrequently. Familial partial lipodystrophy may also be referred to as lipoatrophic diabetes mellitus, but the essential feature is loss of subcutaneous fat (review by Garg, 2004). The disorder may be misdiagnosed as Cushing disease (see 219080) (Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986; Garg, 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Familial partial lipodystrophy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Types 1 and 2 were originally described as clinical subtypes: type 1 (FPLD1; 608600), characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat confined to the limbs (Kobberling et al., 1975), and FPLD2, characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat from the limbs and trunk (Dunnigan et al., 1974; Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986). No genetic basis for FPLD1 has yet been delineated. FPLD3 (604367) is caused by mutation in the PPARG gene (601487) on chromosome 3p25; FPLD4 (613877) is caused by mutation in the PLIN1 gene (170290) on chromosome 15q26; FPLD5 (615238) is caused by mutation in the CIDEC gene (612120) on chromosome 3p25; and FPLD6 (615980) is caused by mutation in the LIPE gene (151750) on chromosome 19q13.
Familial partial lipodystrophy 3
MedGen UID:
328393
Concept ID:
C1720861
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy is a rare condition characterized by an abnormal distribution of fatty (adipose) tissue. Adipose tissue is normally found in many parts of the body, including beneath the skin and surrounding the internal organs. It stores fat as a source of energy and also provides cushioning. In people with familial partial lipodystrophy, adipose tissue is lost from the arms, legs, and hips, giving these parts of the body a very muscular appearance. The fat that cannot be stored in the limbs builds up around the face and neck, and inside the abdomen. Excess fat in these areas gives individuals an appearance described as "cushingoid," because it resembles the physical features associated with a hormonal disorder called Cushing disease. This abnormal fat distribution can begin anytime from childhood to adulthood.Abnormal storage of fat in the body can lead to health problems in adulthood. Many people with familial partial lipodystrophy develop insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's tissues cannot adequately respond to insulin, which is a hormone that normally helps to regulate blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance may worsen to become a more serious disease called diabetes mellitus. Some people with familial partial lipodystrophy develop acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition related to high levels of insulin in the bloodstream. Acanthosis nigricans causes the skin in body folds and creases to become thick, dark, and velvety.Most people with familial partial lipodystrophy also have high levels of fats called triglycerides circulating in the bloodstream (hypertriglyceridemia), which can lead to inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Familial partial lipodystrophy can also cause an abnormal buildup of fats in the liver (hepatic steatosis), which can result in an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and abnormal liver function. After puberty, some affected females develop multiple cysts on the ovaries, an increased amount of body hair (hirsutism), and an inability to conceive (infertility), which are likely related to hormonal changes.Researchers have described at least six forms of familial partial lipodystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause. The most common form of familial partial lipodystrophy is type 2, also called Dunnigan disease. In addition to the signs and symptoms described above, some people with this type of the disorder develop muscle weakness (myopathy), abnormalities of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), a form of heart disease called coronary artery disease, and problems with the electrical system that coordinates the heartbeat (the conduction system).
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1
MedGen UID:
318592
Concept ID:
C1720862
Disease or Syndrome
Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is usually diagnosed at birth or soon thereafter. Because of the absence of functional adipocytes, lipid is stored in other tissues, including muscle and liver. Affected individuals develop insulin resistance and approximately 25%-35% develop diabetes mellitus between ages 15 and 20 years. Hepatomegaly secondary to hepatic steatosis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur in all affected individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported in 20%-25% of affected individuals and is a significant cause of morbidity from cardiac failure and early mortality.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
MedGen UID:
318593
Concept ID:
C1720863
Congenital Abnormality
Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is usually diagnosed at birth or soon thereafter. Because of the absence of functional adipocytes, lipid is stored in other tissues, including muscle and liver. Affected individuals develop insulin resistance and approximately 25%-35% develop diabetes mellitus between ages 15 and 20 years. Hepatomegaly secondary to hepatic steatosis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur in all affected individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported in 20%-25% of affected individuals and is a significant cause of morbidity from cardiac failure and early mortality.
Bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 4
MedGen UID:
337191
Concept ID:
C1845236
Finding
Adrenomyodystrophy
MedGen UID:
337494
Concept ID:
C1846044
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency, mitochondrial
MedGen UID:
376665
Concept ID:
C1849821
Disease or Syndrome
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy
MedGen UID:
339913
Concept ID:
C1853136
Disease or Syndrome
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and associated with increased serum creatine kinase; distal muscle weakness may also occur. About half of patients develop cardiomyopathy later in the disease course. Other variable features include diabetes mellitus, hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly sensorineural hearing loss. Leukocytes and muscle cells show cytoplasmic accumulation of triglycerides (summary by Reilich et al., 2011). Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy belongs to a group of disorders termed neutral lipid storage disorders (NLSDs). These disorders are characterized by the presence of triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in leukocytes and in other tissues, including bone marrow, skin, and muscle. Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS; 275630) is defined as NLSD with ichthyosis (NLSDI). Patients with NLSDM present with myopathy but without ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2007).
Arima syndrome
MedGen UID:
340930
Concept ID:
C1855675
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Citrullinemia type II
MedGen UID:
350276
Concept ID:
C1863844
Disease or Syndrome
Citrin deficiency can manifest in newborns or infants as neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), in older children as failure to thrive and dyslipidemia caused by citrin deficiency (FTTDCD), and in adults as recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms in citrullinemia type II (CTLN2). Often citrin deficiency is characterized by strong preference for protein-rich and/or lipid-rich foods and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. NICCD. Children younger than age one year have a history of low birth weight with growth restriction and transient intrahepatic cholestasis, hepatomegaly, diffuse fatty liver, and parenchymal cellular infiltration associated with hepatic fibrosis, variable liver dysfunction, hypoproteinemia, decreased coagulation factors, hemolytic anemia, and/or hypoglycemia. NICCD is generally not severe and symptoms often resolve by age one year with appropriate treatment, although liver transplantation has been required in rare instances. FTTDCD. Beyond age one year, many children with citrin deficiency develop a protein-rich and/or lipid-rich food preference and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. Clinical abnormalities may include growth restriction, hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, severe fatigue, anorexia, and impaired quality of life. Laboratory changes are dyslipidemia, increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, higher levels of urinary oxidative stress markers, and considerable deviation in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. One or more decades later, some individuals with NICCD or FTTDCD develop CTLN2. CTLN2. Presentation is sudden and usually between ages 20 and 50 years. Manifestations are recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms including nocturnal delirium, aggression, irritability, hyperactivity, delusions, disorientation, restlessness, drowsiness, loss of memory, flapping tremor, convulsive seizures, and coma. Symptoms are often provoked by alcohol and sugar intake, medication, and/or surgery. Affected individuals may or may not have a prior history of NICCD or FTTDCD.
Lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 3
MedGen UID:
436541
Concept ID:
C2675861
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy, also known as Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by marked paucity of adipose tissue, extreme insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, and early onset of diabetes (Garg, 2004). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital generalized lipodystrophy, see CGL1 (608594). See also partial lipodystrophy, congenital cataracts, and neurodegeneration syndrome (LCCNS; 606721), which is associated with heterozygous mutation in the CAV1 gene.
Lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 4
MedGen UID:
412871
Concept ID:
C2750069
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 combines the phenotype of classic Berardinelli-Seip lipodystrophy (608594) with muscular dystrophy and cardiac conduction anomalies (Hayashi et al., 2009). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital generalized lipodystrophy, see CGL1 (608594).
Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1
MedGen UID:
413307
Concept ID:
C2750440
Finding
The accumulation of excess triglyceride in the liver, a condition known as hepatic steatosis (or fatty liver), is associated with adverse metabolic consequences including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Factors promoting deposition of fat in the liver include obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, and alcohol ingestion. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease in Western countries. In a subset of individuals hepatic steatosis promotes an inflammatory response in the liver, referred to as steatohepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer (summary by Romeo et al., 2008). Cohen et al. (2011) reviewed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic Heterogeneity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Another form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD2; 613387) has been associated with variation in the APOC3 gene (107720).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1t
MedGen UID:
414536
Concept ID:
C2752015
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Homocystinuria due to CBS deficiency
MedGen UID:
461694
Concept ID:
C3150344
Disease or Syndrome
Homocystinuria caused by cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) deficiency is characterized by involvement of the eye (ectopia lentis and/or severe myopia), skeletal system (excessive height, long limbs, scolioisis, and pectus excavatum), vascular system (thromboembolism), and CNS (developmental delay/intellectual disability). All four ? or only one ? of the systems can be involved; expressivity is variable for all of the clinical signs. It is not unusual for a previously asymptomatic individual to present in adult years with only a thromboembolic event that is often cerebrovascular. Two phenotypic variants are recognized, B6-responsive homocystinuria and B6-non-responsive homocystinuria. B6-responsive homocystinuria is usually milder than the non-responsive variant. Thromboembolism is the major cause of early death and morbidity. IQ in individuals with untreated homocystinuria ranges widely, from 10 to 138. In B6-responsive individuals the mean IQ is 79 versus 57 for those who are B6-non-responsive. Other features that may occur include: seizures, psychiatric problems, extrapyramidal signs (e.g., dystonia), hypopigmentation of the skin and hair, malar flush, livedo reticularis, and pancreatitis.
Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 2
MedGen UID:
462001
Concept ID:
C3150651
Finding
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a buildup of excessive fat in the liver that can lead to liver damage resembling the damage caused by alcohol abuse, but that occurs in people who do not drink heavily. The liver is a part of the digestive system that helps break down food, store energy, and remove waste products, including toxins. The liver normally contains some fat; an individual is considered to have a fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) if the liver contains more than 5 to 10 percent fat.The fat deposits in the liver associated with NAFLD usually cause no symptoms, although they may cause increased levels of liver enzymes that are detected in routine blood tests. Some affected individuals have abdominal pain or fatigue. During a physical examination, the liver may be found to be slightly enlarged.Between 7 and 30 percent of people with NAFLD develop inflammation of the liver (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, also known as NASH), leading to liver damage. Minor damage to the liver can be repaired by the body. However, severe or long-term damage can lead to the replacement of normal liver tissue with scar tissue (fibrosis), resulting in irreversible liver disease (cirrhosis) that causes the liver to stop working properly. Signs and symptoms of cirrhosis, which get worse as fibrosis affects more of the liver, include fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, swelling (edema), and yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). Scarring in the vein that carries blood into the liver from the other digestive organs (the portal vein) can lead to increased pressure in that blood vessel (portal hypertension), resulting in swollen blood vessels (varices) within the digestive system. Rupture of these varices can cause life-threatening bleeding.NAFLD and NASH are thought to account for many cases of cirrhosis that have no obvious underlying cause (cryptogenic cirrhosis); at least one-third of people with NASH eventually develop cirrhosis. People with NAFLD, NASH, and cirrhosis are also at increased risk of developing liver cancer (hepatocellular cancer).NAFLD is most common in middle-aged or older people, although younger people, including children, are also affected. It is often considered as part of a group of conditions known collectively as the metabolic syndrome; in addition to NAFLD, the metabolic syndrome includes obesity, type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes (insulin resistance), high levels of fats (lipids) such as cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, and high blood pressure (hypertension). However, a person with NAFLD may not have all or any of the other conditions that make up the metabolic syndrome, and individuals with some or all of those conditions may not have NAFLD.
Familial partial lipodystrophy 4
MedGen UID:
462618
Concept ID:
C3151268
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy type 4 is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by childhood or young adult onset of loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue primarily affecting the lower limbs, insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension (summary by Gandotra et al., 2011).
Mitochondrial DNA-depletion syndrome 3, hepatocerebral
MedGen UID:
462863
Concept ID:
C3151513
Disease or Syndrome
The two forms of deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) deficiency are a neonatal multisystem disorder and an isolated hepatic disorder that presents later in infancy or childhood. The majority of affected individuals have the multisystem illness with hepatic disease (jaundice, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, and elevated transaminases) and neurologic manifestations (hypotonia, nystagmus, and psychomotor retardation) evident within weeks of birth. Those with isolated liver disease may also have renal involvement and some later develop mild hypotonia. Progressive hepatic disease is the most common cause of death in both forms.
Hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency
MedGen UID:
482011
Concept ID:
C3280381
Disease or Syndrome
Hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset seizures, mild dysmorphic features, and characteristic biochemical anomalies, including persistent hypermethioninemia with increased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy); homocysteine is typically normal (summary by Bjursell et al., 2011).
Hypertriglyceridemia, transient infantile
MedGen UID:
482583
Concept ID:
C3280953
Disease or Syndrome
Transient infantile hypertriglyceridemia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of moderate to severe transient hypertriglyceridemia in infancy that normalizes with age. The hypertriglyceridemia is associated with hepatomegaly, moderately elevated transaminases, persistent fatty liver, and the development of hepatic fibrosis. The long-term outcome of affected individuals is unclear (summary by Basel-Vanagaite et al., 2012).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 11
MedGen UID:
766981
Concept ID:
C3554067
Disease or Syndrome
COXPD11 is a severe multisystemic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia and lactic acidosis. Affected individuals may have respiratory insufficiency, foot deformities, or seizures, and all reported patients have died in infancy. Biochemical studies show deficiencies of multiple mitochondrial respiratory enzymes (summary by Garcia-Diaz et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 2
MedGen UID:
767448
Concept ID:
C3554534
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
811623
Concept ID:
C3715192
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome (MDPL) is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder characterized by prominent loss of subcutaneous fat, a characteristic facial appearance, and metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Sensorineural deafness occurs late in the first or second decades of life (summary by Weedon et al., 2013).
Familial partial lipodystrophy 5
MedGen UID:
815270
Concept ID:
C3808940
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy is a rare condition characterized by an abnormal distribution of fatty (adipose) tissue. Adipose tissue is normally found in many parts of the body, including beneath the skin and surrounding the internal organs. It stores fat as a source of energy and also provides cushioning. In people with familial partial lipodystrophy, adipose tissue is lost from the arms, legs, and hips, giving these parts of the body a very muscular appearance. The fat that cannot be stored in the limbs builds up around the face and neck, and inside the abdomen. Excess fat in these areas gives individuals an appearance described as "cushingoid," because it resembles the physical features associated with a hormonal disorder called Cushing disease. This abnormal fat distribution can begin anytime from childhood to adulthood.Abnormal storage of fat in the body can lead to health problems in adulthood. Many people with familial partial lipodystrophy develop insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's tissues cannot adequately respond to insulin, which is a hormone that normally helps to regulate blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance may worsen to become a more serious disease called diabetes mellitus. Some people with familial partial lipodystrophy develop acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition related to high levels of insulin in the bloodstream. Acanthosis nigricans causes the skin in body folds and creases to become thick, dark, and velvety.Most people with familial partial lipodystrophy also have high levels of fats called triglycerides circulating in the bloodstream (hypertriglyceridemia), which can lead to inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Familial partial lipodystrophy can also cause an abnormal buildup of fats in the liver (hepatic steatosis), which can result in an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and abnormal liver function. After puberty, some affected females develop multiple cysts on the ovaries, an increased amount of body hair (hirsutism), and an inability to conceive (infertility), which are likely related to hormonal changes.Researchers have described at least six forms of familial partial lipodystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause. The most common form of familial partial lipodystrophy is type 2, also called Dunnigan disease. In addition to the signs and symptoms described above, some people with this type of the disorder develop muscle weakness (myopathy), abnormalities of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), a form of heart disease called coronary artery disease, and problems with the electrical system that coordinates the heartbeat (the conduction system).
Infantile liver failure syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
815852
Concept ID:
C3809522
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 19
MedGen UID:
816385
Concept ID:
C3810055
Disease or Syndrome
Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
854382
Concept ID:
C3887523
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), which catalyzes the initial step of mitochondrial ß-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids with a chain length of 14 to 20 carbons, is associated with three phenotypes. The severe early-onset cardiac and multiorgan failure form typically presents in the first months of life with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, pericardial effusion, and arrhythmias, as well as hypotonia, hepatomegaly, and intermittent hypoglycemia. The hepatic or hypoketotic hypoglycemic form typically presents during early childhood with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly, but without cardiomyopathy. The later-onset episodic myopathic form presents with intermittent rhabdomyolysis provoked by exercise, muscle cramps and/or pain, and/or exercise intolerance. Hypoglycemia typically is not present at the time of symptoms.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 21
MedGen UID:
863105
Concept ID:
C4014668
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy 6
MedGen UID:
863306
Concept ID:
C4014869
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy is a rare condition characterized by an abnormal distribution of fatty (adipose) tissue. Adipose tissue is normally found in many parts of the body, including beneath the skin and surrounding the internal organs. It stores fat as a source of energy and also provides cushioning. In people with familial partial lipodystrophy, adipose tissue is lost from the arms, legs, and hips, giving these parts of the body a very muscular appearance. The fat that cannot be stored in the limbs builds up around the face and neck, and inside the abdomen. Excess fat in these areas gives individuals an appearance described as "cushingoid," because it resembles the physical features associated with a hormonal disorder called Cushing disease. This abnormal fat distribution can begin anytime from childhood to adulthood.Abnormal storage of fat in the body can lead to health problems in adulthood. Many people with familial partial lipodystrophy develop insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's tissues cannot adequately respond to insulin, which is a hormone that normally helps to regulate blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance may worsen to become a more serious disease called diabetes mellitus. Some people with familial partial lipodystrophy develop acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition related to high levels of insulin in the bloodstream. Acanthosis nigricans causes the skin in body folds and creases to become thick, dark, and velvety.Most people with familial partial lipodystrophy also have high levels of fats called triglycerides circulating in the bloodstream (hypertriglyceridemia), which can lead to inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Familial partial lipodystrophy can also cause an abnormal buildup of fats in the liver (hepatic steatosis), which can result in an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and abnormal liver function. After puberty, some affected females develop multiple cysts on the ovaries, an increased amount of body hair (hirsutism), and an inability to conceive (infertility), which are likely related to hormonal changes.Researchers have described at least six forms of familial partial lipodystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause. The most common form of familial partial lipodystrophy is type 2, also called Dunnigan disease. In addition to the signs and symptoms described above, some people with this type of the disorder develop muscle weakness (myopathy), abnormalities of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), a form of heart disease called coronary artery disease, and problems with the electrical system that coordinates the heartbeat (the conduction system).
Interstitial lung and liver disease
MedGen UID:
895551
Concept ID:
C4225400
Disease or Syndrome
Interstitial lung and liver disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of respiratory insufficiency and progressive liver disease in infancy or early childhood. Pathologic examination of lung lavage is consistent with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (summary by Hadchouel et al., 2015).
Seckel syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
934614
Concept ID:
C4310647
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency 47
MedGen UID:
934786
Concept ID:
C4310819
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-47 is an X-linked recessive complex immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, liver dysfunction, and defective glycosylation of serum proteins. Some patients may also have neurologic abnormalities (summary by Jansen et al., 2016).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Fiorentino TV, Marini MA, Succurro E, Andreozzi F, Sciacqua A, Hribal ML, Perticone F, Sesti G
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2017 Dec;134:53-61. Epub 2017 Oct 6 doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.09.017. PMID: 28993156
Mignot A, Ayav A, Quillot D, Zuily S, Petit I, Nguyen-Thi PL, Malgras A, Laurent V
Abdom Radiol (NY) 2017 Jul;42(7):1880-1887. doi: 10.1007/s00261-017-1087-6. PMID: 28357531
Magri MC, Prata TV, Manchiero C, Dantas BP, Mazza CC, Tengan FM
BMC Infect Dis 2017 Mar 29;17(1):235. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2340-x. PMID: 28356060Free PMC Article
Hata T, Ishida M, Motoi F, Sakata N, Yoshimatsu G, Naitoh T, Katayose Y, Egawa S, Unno M
Pancreas 2016 Mar;45(3):362-9. doi: 10.1097/MPA.0000000000000462. PMID: 26495776
Zhang HX, Xu XQ, Fu JF, Lai C, Chen XF
Pediatr Obes 2015 Apr;10(2):112-7. Epub 2014 Jun 5 doi: 10.1111/ijpo.232. PMID: 24903159

Diagnosis

Fiorentino TV, Marini MA, Succurro E, Andreozzi F, Sciacqua A, Hribal ML, Perticone F, Sesti G
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2017 Dec;134:53-61. Epub 2017 Oct 6 doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.09.017. PMID: 28993156
Magri MC, Prata TV, Manchiero C, Dantas BP, Mazza CC, Tengan FM
BMC Infect Dis 2017 Mar 29;17(1):235. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2340-x. PMID: 28356060Free PMC Article
Chowdhary V, Pernicka JS, Sharma R
J Med Case Rep 2016 Dec 20;10(1):370. doi: 10.1186/s13256-016-1152-8. PMID: 27998312Free PMC Article
Long MT, Pedley A, Colantonio LD, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U, Muntner P, Fox CS
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Aug;14(8):1172-1180.e2. Epub 2016 Apr 1 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2016.03.034. PMID: 27046482Free PMC Article
Zhang HX, Xu XQ, Fu JF, Lai C, Chen XF
Pediatr Obes 2015 Apr;10(2):112-7. Epub 2014 Jun 5 doi: 10.1111/ijpo.232. PMID: 24903159

Therapy

Chowdhary V, Pernicka JS, Sharma R
J Med Case Rep 2016 Dec 20;10(1):370. doi: 10.1186/s13256-016-1152-8. PMID: 27998312Free PMC Article
Hata T, Ishida M, Motoi F, Sakata N, Yoshimatsu G, Naitoh T, Katayose Y, Egawa S, Unno M
Pancreas 2016 Mar;45(3):362-9. doi: 10.1097/MPA.0000000000000462. PMID: 26495776
Gong L, Liu J, Wang J, Lou GQ, Shi JP
Transplant Proc 2015 Dec;47(10):2886-91. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2015.10.023. PMID: 26707308
Imatoh T, Kamimura S, Miyazaki M
Eur J Clin Nutr 2015 Sep;69(9):1023-7. Epub 2015 Mar 25 doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.23. PMID: 25804274
Wang HN, Chen HD, Chen KY, Xiao JF, He K, Xiang GA, Xie X
APMIS 2014 May;122(5):443-51. Epub 2013 Sep 11 doi: 10.1111/apm.12166. PMID: 24020820

Prognosis

Fiorentino TV, Marini MA, Succurro E, Andreozzi F, Sciacqua A, Hribal ML, Perticone F, Sesti G
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2017 Dec;134:53-61. Epub 2017 Oct 6 doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.09.017. PMID: 28993156
Kim JM, Ha SY, Joh JW, Sinn DH, Jeong WK, Choi GS, Gwak GY, Kwon CH, Kim YK, Paik YH, Lee JH, Lee WJ, Lee SK, Park CK
Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Feb;95(7):e2718. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002718. PMID: 26886612Free PMC Article
Gong L, Liu J, Wang J, Lou GQ, Shi JP
Transplant Proc 2015 Dec;47(10):2886-91. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2015.10.023. PMID: 26707308
Saad V, Wicklow B, Wittmeier K, Hay J, MacIntosh A, Venugopal N, Ryner L, Berard L, McGavock J
BMC Pediatr 2015 Oct 8;15:151. doi: 10.1186/s12887-015-0465-x. PMID: 26450572Free PMC Article
Zhang HX, Xu XQ, Fu JF, Lai C, Chen XF
Pediatr Obes 2015 Apr;10(2):112-7. Epub 2014 Jun 5 doi: 10.1111/ijpo.232. PMID: 24903159

Clinical prediction guides

Fiorentino TV, Marini MA, Succurro E, Andreozzi F, Sciacqua A, Hribal ML, Perticone F, Sesti G
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2017 Dec;134:53-61. Epub 2017 Oct 6 doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.09.017. PMID: 28993156
Kim SM, Lee B, An HJ, Kim DH, Park KC, Noh SG, Chung KW, Lee EK, Kim KM, Kim DH, Kim SJ, Chun P, Lee HJ, Moon HR, Chung HY
Oncotarget 2017 Jul 11;8(28):46273-46285. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.17695. PMID: 28545035Free PMC Article
Magri MC, Prata TV, Manchiero C, Dantas BP, Mazza CC, Tengan FM
BMC Infect Dis 2017 Mar 29;17(1):235. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2340-x. PMID: 28356060Free PMC Article
Long MT, Pedley A, Colantonio LD, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U, Muntner P, Fox CS
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Aug;14(8):1172-1180.e2. Epub 2016 Apr 1 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2016.03.034. PMID: 27046482Free PMC Article
Zhang HX, Xu XQ, Fu JF, Lai C, Chen XF
Pediatr Obes 2015 Apr;10(2):112-7. Epub 2014 Jun 5 doi: 10.1111/ijpo.232. PMID: 24903159

Recent systematic reviews

Zheng D, Guo Z, Schroder PM, Zheng Z, Lu Y, Gu J, He X
Radiology 2017 Jan;282(1):92-102. Epub 2016 Aug 1 doi: 10.1148/radiol.2016152571. PMID: 27479639
Roerecke M, Nanau R, Rehm J, Neuman M
EBioMedicine 2016 Jun;8:317-330. Epub 2016 Apr 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.04.023. PMID: 27428441Free PMC Article
Di Minno MN, Di Minno A, Ambrosino P, Songia P, Tremoli E, Poggio P
Int J Cardiol 2016 Aug 15;217:1-6. Epub 2016 Apr 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.04.162. PMID: 27164417
Tang A, Tan J, Sun M, Hamilton G, Bydder M, Wolfson T, Gamst AC, Middleton M, Brunt EM, Loomba R, Lavine JE, Schwimmer JB, Sirlin CB
Radiology 2013 May;267(2):422-31. Epub 2013 Feb 4 doi: 10.1148/radiol.12120896. PMID: 23382291Free PMC Article
Bohte AE, van Werven JR, Bipat S, Stoker J
Eur Radiol 2011 Jan;21(1):87-97. Epub 2010 Jul 31 doi: 10.1007/s00330-010-1905-5. PMID: 20680289Free PMC Article

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