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Items: 8

1.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A

Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a term applied to a heterogeneous group of disorders whose common feature is end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450). In addition to PTH resistance, PHP Ia is characterized by resistance to other hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; see TSHB, 188540) and gonadotropins. PHP Ia is associated with a constellation of clinical features referred to as Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), which includes short stature, obesity, round facies, subcutaneous ossifications, brachydactyly, and other skeletal anomalies. Some patients have mental retardation (Mantovani and Spada, 2006). In contrast, pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP; 612463) is characterized by the physical findings of AHO but without hormone resistance (Kinard et al., 1979; Fitch, 1982; Mantovani and Spada, 2006). PHP1A occurs only after maternal inheritance of the molecular defect, whereas PPHP occurs only after paternal inheritance of the molecular defect (Davies and Hughes, 1993; Wilson et al., 1994). This is an example of imprinting, with differential gene expression depending on the parent of origin of the allele. See INHERITANCE and PATHOGENESIS sections. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
46178
Concept ID:
C0033806
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism

A condition characterized by resistance to the action of parathyroid hormone, in which there is hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and (appropriately) high levels of parathyroid hormone. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504627
Concept ID:
CN000798
Finding
3.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type I A

A rare, autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the GNAS gene. It is characterized by the presence of short stature, obesity, round face, brachydactyly, subcutaneous ossifications, and pseudohypoparathtyroidism. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
488447
Concept ID:
C3494506
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Thyroid hormone plasma membrane transport defect

MedGen UID:
396060
Concept ID:
C1861101
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B

Pseudohypoparathyroidism refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450). Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib is characterized clinically by isolated renal PTH resistance manifest as hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased serum PTH. Biochemical studies show a decreased response of urinary cAMP to exogenous PTH, but normal Gs activity in erythrocytes because the defect is restricted to renal tubule cells. In contrast to the findings in PHP Ia, patients with PHP Ib usually lack the physical characteristics of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) and typically show no other endocrine abnormalities, although resistance to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; 188540) has been reported in PHP Ib (Levine et al., 1983, Heinsimer et al., 1984). However, patients with PHP Ib may rarely show some features of AHO (Mariot et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description, classification, and a discussion of molecular genetics of pseudohypoparathyroidism, see PHP1A (103580). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
350343
Concept ID:
C1864100
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Inborn genetic diseases

Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
181981
Concept ID:
C0950123
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Metabolic disease

Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body disrupt this process. When this happens, you might have too much of some substances or too little of other ones that you need to stay healthy. . You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function normally. Diabetes is an example. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
44376
Concept ID:
C0025517
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism

Patients with pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism do not show resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450) or other hormones, as is the case with PHP1A (103580), but do manifest the constellation of clinical features referred to as Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), which includes short stature, obesity, round facies, subcutaneous ossifications, brachydactyly, and other skeletal anomalies. Some patients have mental retardation (Kinard et al., 1979; Fitch, 1982; Mantovani and Spada, 2006). PPHP occurs only after paternal inheritance of the molecular defect, whereas PHP1A occurs only after maternal inheritance of the molecular defect (see Inheritance and Pathogenesis below). This is an example of imprinting, with differential gene expression depending on the parent of origin of the allele (Davies and Hughes, 1993; Wilson et al., 1994). For a general phenotypic description, classification, and a discussion of molecular genetics of pseudohypoparathyroidism, see PHP1A (103580). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
10995
Concept ID:
C0033835
Disease or Syndrome
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