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1.

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified

The most common type of invasive breast carcinoma, accounting for approximately 70% of breast carcinomas. The gross appearance is usually typical with an irregular stellate outline. Microscopically, randomly arranged epithelial elements are seen. When large sheets of malignant cells are present, necrosis may be seen. With adequate tissue sampling, in situ carcinoma can be demonstrated in association with the infiltrating carcinoma. The in situ component is nearly always ductal but occasionally may be lobular or both. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
209548
Concept ID:
C1134719
Neoplastic Process
2.

Malignant Breast Neoplasm

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm involving the breast. The vast majority of cases are carcinomas arising from the breast parenchyma or the nipple. Malignant breast neoplasms occur more frequently in females than in males. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
651
Concept ID:
C0006142
Neoplastic Process
3.

breast cancer

MedGen UID:
880206
Concept ID:
CN235590
Finding
4.

Neoplasm of the breast

Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. In both women and men, the most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the milk ducts (ductal cancer). In women, cancer can also develop in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer). Most men have little or no lobular tissue, so lobular cancer in men is very rare.In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include a lump or thickening in or near the breast; a change in the size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, or retraction (turning inward); and skin irritation, dimpling, or scaliness. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer.In some cases, cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. If breast cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers.A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
264172
Concept ID:
C1458155
Neoplastic Process
5.

Neoplasm

A malignant tumor at the original site of growth. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
227011
Concept ID:
C1306459
Neoplastic Process
6.

Breast carcinoma

A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
7.

Malignancies

MedGen UID:
924235
Concept ID:
C4282132
Neoplastic Process
8.

Epidermal growth factor

A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
66867
Concept ID:
C0242275
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
9.

Hypoxia

A decrease in the amount of oxygen in the body. Symptoms range from mild (impaired judgment, memory loss, impaired motor coordination) to severe (seizures and coma). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
66846
Concept ID:
C0242184
Pathologic Function
10.

Progesterone

A synthetic form of the endogenous hormone progesterone. Progesterone binds to the progesterone receptor, resulting in dissociation of heat shock proteins, receptor phosphorylation, and transcription activation through direct or indirect interaction with transcription factors. This agent exerts inhibitory effects on estrogens by decreasing the number of estrogen receptors and increasing its metabolism to inactive metabolites. Progesterone induces secretory changes in the endometrium, decreases uterine contractility during pregnancy, and maintains pregnancy. (NCI04) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
18661
Concept ID:
C0033308
Hormone; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
11.

Phosphorylation

The creation of a phosphate derivative of an organic molecule. This is usually achieved by transferring a phosphate group from ATP via the action of a kinase. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
10742
Concept ID:
C0031715
Molecular Function
12.

Tumor Mass

A benign or malignant pathologic structure in any part of the body, resulting from a neoplastic accumulation of cells. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
475563
Concept ID:
C3273930
Finding
13.

Mutant

An altered form of an individual, organism, population, or genetic character that differs from the corresponding wild type due to one or more alterations (mutations). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
109303
Concept ID:
C0596988
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
14.

Mass of body structure

A benign or malignant pathologic structure in any part of the body, resulting from a neoplastic accumulation of cells, inflammatory cells, or cystic changes. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108287
Concept ID:
C0577559
Finding
15.

Ameliorated by

An ameliorating factor is defined as an external factor that leads to the manifestation of a sign or symptom in a person improving or becoming more bearable. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
83049
Concept ID:
C0332161
Qualitative Concept
16.

Negative

An absence finding of the specified component / analyte, organism or clinical sign based on the established threshold of the performed test or procedure. [Note: Negative does not necessarily imply the complete absence of the specified item.].  [from HL7]

MedGen UID:
61377
Concept ID:
C0205160
Finding
17.

Estrogenic preparation

A class of natural or synthetic hormones that binds to a cytoplasmic receptor and initiates translocation of the hormone-receptor complex to the nucleus of target cells of tissues rich in estrogen receptors, including the endometrium, myometrium, oviduct, vagina, fallopian tube, cervix, brain, liver, placenta, ovarian cells, Leydigs cells, kidney, prostate, pancreas, heart, and skin. (NCI) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
8701
Concept ID:
C0014939
Hormone; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Epithelial Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from and is composed of epithelial cells. This category include adenomas, papillomas, and carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
277963
Concept ID:
C1368683
Neoplastic Process
19.

Ductal carcinoma

Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
225902
Concept ID:
C1176475
Neoplastic Process
20.

Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary

Neoplasms, usually carcinoma, located within the center of an organ or within small lobes, and in the case of the breast, intraductally. The emphasis of the name is on the location of the neoplastic tissue rather than on its histological type. Most cancers of this type are located in the breast. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
104937
Concept ID:
C0206768
Neoplastic Process
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