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Pityriasis rubra pilaris

Pityriasis rubra pilaris is an uncommon skin disorder characterized by the appearance of keratotic follicular papules, well-demarcated salmon-colored erythematous plaques covered with fine powdery scales interspersed with distinct islands of uninvolved skin, and palmoplantar keratoderma. Most cases are sporadic, although up to 6.5% of PRP-affected individuals report a positive family history. The rare familial cases show autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance and variable expression: the disorder is usually present at birth or appears during the first years of life and is characterized by prominent follicular hyperkeratosis, diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma, and erythema, with only a modest response to treatment (summary by Fuchs-Telem et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

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Genetic prion diseases

Genetic prion diseases generally manifest with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) represent the core phenotypes of genetic prion disease. Note: A fourth clinical phenotype, known as Huntington disease like-1 (HDL-1) has been proposed, but this is based on a single report, and the underlying pathologic features would categorize it as GSS. Although it is clear that these four subtypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset ranges from the third to ninth decade of life. The course ranges from a few months to several years (typically 5-7 years; in rare instances, >10 years). [from GeneReviews]

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