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Mevalonic aciduria

Mevalonic aciduria, the first recognized defect in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids, is a consequence of a deficiency of mevalonate kinase (ATP:mevalonate 5-phosphotransferase; EC Mevalonic acid accumulates because of failure of conversion to 5-phosphomevalonic acid, which is catalyzed by mevalonate kinase. Mevalonic acid is synthesized from 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA, a reaction catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase (142910). Mevalonic aciduria is characterized by dysmorphology, psychomotor retardation, progressive cerebellar ataxia, and recurrent febrile crises, usually manifesting in early infancy, accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and skin rash. The febrile crises are similar to those observed in hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and to periodic fever syndrome (HIDS; 260920), which is also caused by mutation in the MVK gene (summary by Prietsch et al., 2003). [from OMIM]

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Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome

Mosaic variegated aneuploidy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mosaic aneuploidies, predominantly trisomies and monosomies, involving multiple different chromosomes and tissues (Hanks et al., 2004). The proportion of aneuploid cells varies but is usually more than 25% and is substantially greater than in normal individuals. Affected individuals typically present with severe intrauterine growth retardation and microcephaly. Eye anomalies, mild dysmorphism, variable developmental delay, and a broad spectrum of additional congenital abnormalities and medical conditions may also occur. The risk of malignancy is high, with rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumor, and leukemia reported in several cases. See also MVA2 (614114), caused by mutation in the CEP57 gene (607951) on chromosome 11q21. [from OMIM]

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