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Gingivitis

MedGen UID:
4895
Concept ID:
C0017574
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Gingival inflammation; Inflamed gums; Red and swollen gums
SNOMED CT: Gingivitis (66383009)
 
HPO: HP:0000230

Definition

Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue. [from MeSH]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVGingivitis

Conditions with this feature

Chédiak-Higashi syndrome
MedGen UID:
3347
Concept ID:
C0007965
Disease or Syndrome
Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), immunodeficiency, and a mild bleeding tendency. Approximately 85% of affected individuals develop the accelerated phase, a lymphoproliferative infiltration of the bone marrow and reticuloendothelial system. All affected individuals including adolescents and adults with atypical CHS and children with classic CHS who have successfully undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) develop neurologic findings during early adulthood.
Alstrom syndrome
MedGen UID:
78675
Concept ID:
C0268425
Congenital Abnormality
Alström syndrome is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, obesity, progressive sensorineural hearing impairment, dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy, the insulin resistance syndrome, and multiple organ failure. Wide clinical variability is observed among affected individuals, even within the same family. Cone-rod dystrophy presents as progressive visual impairment, photophobia, and nystagmus usually starting between birth and age 15 months. Many individuals lose all perception of light by the end of the second decade, but a minority retain the ability to read large print into the third decade. Children usually have normal birth weight but develop truncal obesity during their first year. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss presents in the first decade in as many as 70% of individuals. Hearing loss may progress to the severe or moderately severe range (40-70 db) by the end of the first to second decade. Insulin resistance is typically accompanied by the skin changes of acanthosis nigricans, and proceeds to type 2 diabetes in the majority by the third decade. Nearly all demonstrate associated dyslipidemia. Other endocrine abnormalities can include hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in boys, and polycystic ovaries in girls. More than 60% of individuals with Alström syndrome develop cardiac failure as a result of dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy. About 50% of individuals have delay in early developmental milestones; intelligence is normal. Liver involvement includes elevation of transaminases, steatosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and steatohepatitis. Portal hypertension and cirrhosis can lead to hepatic encephalopathy and life-threatening esophageal varices. Pulmonary dysfunction and severe renal disease may also develop. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) can occur as early as the late teens.
Immunodeficiency with hyper IgM type 1
MedGen UID:
96019
Concept ID:
C0398689
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM1), a disorder of abnormal T- and B-cell function, is characterized by low serum concentrations of IgG and IgA and normal or elevated serum concentrations of IgM. Mitogen proliferation may be normal, but NK- and T-cell cytotoxicity are frequently impaired. Antigen-specific responses may be decreased or absent. The range of clinical findings varies, even within the same family. More than 50% of males with HIGM1 develop symptoms by age one year, and more than 90% are symptomatic by age four years. HIGM1 usually presents in infancy with recurrent upper- and lower-respiratory tract bacterial infections, opportunistic infections, and recurrent or protracted diarrhea associated with failure to thrive. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia are common. Autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorders, such as sclerosing cholangitis, have been reported. Significant neurologic complications, often the result of a CNS infection, are seen in 10%-15% of affected males. Liver disease, including primary cirrhosis and carcinomas (bile duct carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, adenocarcinomas of the liver and gall bladder), and tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (carcinoid of the pancreas, glucagonoma of the pancreas) are common life-threatening complications in adolescents and young adults with HIGM1. Affected males are also at an increased risk for lymphoma, particularly Hodgkin's disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1
MedGen UID:
348448
Concept ID:
C1861766
Disease or Syndrome
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of neutrophil function resulting from a deficiency of the beta-2 integrin subunit of the leukocyte cell adhesion molecule. The leukocyte cell adhesion molecule is present on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes and granulocytes and mediates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. LAD is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections; impaired pus formation and wound healing; abnormalities of a wide variety of adhesion-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes; and a lack of beta-2/alpha-L, beta-2/alpha-M, and beta-2/alpha-X expression.
Tumoral calcinosis, familial, normophosphatemic
MedGen UID:
355311
Concept ID:
C1864861
Disease or Syndrome
Plasminogen deficiency, type I
MedGen UID:
369859
Concept ID:
C1968804
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital plasminogen deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions consisting of subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation is ligneous ('wood-like') conjunctivitis, a redness and subsequent formation of pseudomembranes mostly on the palpebral surfaces of the eye that progress to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa. The lesions may be triggered by local injury and/or infection and often recur after local excision. Pseudomembranous lesions of other mucous membranes often occur in the mouth, nasopharynx, trachea, and female genital tract. Some affected children also have congenital occlusive hydrocephalus. A slightly increased female:male ratio has been observed (1.4:1 to 2:1) (Schuster and Seregard, 2003; Tefs et al., 2006). Type I plasminogen deficiency is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity, decreased plasminogen antigen levels, and clinical symptoms, whereas type II plasminogen deficiency, also known as 'dysplasminogenemia,' is characterized by decreased plasminogen activity with normal or slightly reduced antigen levels. Patients with type II deficiency are usually asymptomatic. Ligneous conjunctivitis and pseudomembranous formation has only been associated with type I plasminogen deficiency. Presumably, normal amounts of plasminogen antigen with decreased activity, as seen in type II, is sufficient for normal wound healing (Schuster and Seregard, 2003).
Chronic familial neutropenia
MedGen UID:
384521
Concept ID:
C2267231
Disease or Syndrome
PC-K6a
MedGen UID:
811523
Concept ID:
C3714948
Disease or Syndrome
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita. PC type 1, the Jadassohn-Lewandowsky type, shows oral leukokeratosis. PC type 2, the Jackson-Lawler type, has natal teeth and epidermoid cysts (cylindromas), but no oral leukoplakia. Corneal dystrophy may be a feature exclusively of the Jackson-Lawler type. Smith et al. (1998) stated that PC type 2, in contrast to PC type 1, has minimal oral involvement and milder keratoderma, and multiple steatocystomas (184500) is a major clinical feature. Steatocystoma, also known as eruptive vellus cyst, is a cystic hamartoma lined by sebaceous ductal epithelium. On the basis of a study of 13 patients with PC type 1 or type 2, Terrinoni et al. (2001) concluded that the presence of pilosebaceous cysts following puberty is the best indicator of PC type 2; prepubescent patients are more difficult to classify due to the lack of cysts. Natal teeth are indicative of PC type 2, although their absence does not preclude the PC type 2 diagnosis.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Alqaderi H, Tavares M, Hartman M, Goodson JM
J Dent Res 2016 Nov;95(12):1387-1393. Epub 2016 Jul 29 doi: 10.1177/0022034516661509. PMID: 27470068
Gürkan A, Eren G, Çetinkalp Ş, Akçay YD, Emingil G, Atilla G
Arch Oral Biol 2016 Sep;69:82-8. Epub 2016 May 11 doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.05.011. PMID: 27270225
Huang S, Li Z, He T, Bo C, Chang J, Li L, He Y, Liu J, Charbonneau D, Li R, Xu J
Sci Rep 2016 Apr 20;6:24705. doi: 10.1038/srep24705. PMID: 27094556Free PMC Article
Kinane DF, Zhang P, Benakanakere M, Singleton J, Biesbrock A, Nonnenmacher C, He T
J Periodontal Res 2015 Dec;50(6):864-9. Epub 2015 May 9 doi: 10.1111/jre.12280. PMID: 25960104
Thorbert-Mros S, Larsson L, Berglundh T
J Periodontal Res 2015 Aug;50(4):535-43. Epub 2014 Oct 20 doi: 10.1111/jre.12236. PMID: 25330403

Diagnosis

Huang S, Li Z, He T, Bo C, Chang J, Li L, He Y, Liu J, Charbonneau D, Li R, Xu J
Sci Rep 2016 Apr 20;6:24705. doi: 10.1038/srep24705. PMID: 27094556Free PMC Article
Klukowska M, Goyal CR, Khambe D, Cannon M, Miner M, Gurich N, Circello B, Huggins T, Barker ML, Furnish C, Conde E, Hoke P, Haught C, Xie S, White DJ
Am J Dent 2015 Oct;28(5):273-84. PMID: 26714345
Rodan R, Khlaifat F, Smadi L, Azab R, Abdalmohdi A
BMC Res Notes 2015 Nov 9;8:662. doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1532-y. PMID: 26552995Free PMC Article
Otero RA, Nascimento FN, Souza IP, Silva RC, Lima RS, Robaina TF, Câmara FP, Santos N, Castro GF
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2015 May-Jun;57(3):221-5. doi: 10.1590/S0036-46652015000300007. PMID: 26200962Free PMC Article
Kinane DF, Zhang P, Benakanakere M, Singleton J, Biesbrock A, Nonnenmacher C, He T
J Periodontal Res 2015 Dec;50(6):864-9. Epub 2015 May 9 doi: 10.1111/jre.12280. PMID: 25960104

Therapy

Alqaderi H, Tavares M, Hartman M, Goodson JM
J Dent Res 2016 Nov;95(12):1387-1393. Epub 2016 Jul 29 doi: 10.1177/0022034516661509. PMID: 27470068
Huang S, Li Z, He T, Bo C, Chang J, Li L, He Y, Liu J, Charbonneau D, Li R, Xu J
Sci Rep 2016 Apr 20;6:24705. doi: 10.1038/srep24705. PMID: 27094556Free PMC Article
Kinane DF, Zhang P, Benakanakere M, Singleton J, Biesbrock A, Nonnenmacher C, He T
J Periodontal Res 2015 Dec;50(6):864-9. Epub 2015 May 9 doi: 10.1111/jre.12280. PMID: 25960104
Raslan SA, Cortelli JR, Costa FO, Aquino DR, Franco GC, Cota LO, Gargioni-Filho A, Cortelli SC
J Periodontol 2015 Apr;86(4):516-26. Epub 2014 Dec 11 doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.140197. PMID: 25494658
Syndergaard B, Al-Sabbagh M, Kryscio RJ, Xi J, Ding X, Ebersole JL, Miller CS
J Periodontol 2014 Aug;85(8):e295-303. Epub 2014 Feb 6 doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.130696. PMID: 24502627Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Alqaderi H, Tavares M, Hartman M, Goodson JM
J Dent Res 2016 Nov;95(12):1387-1393. Epub 2016 Jul 29 doi: 10.1177/0022034516661509. PMID: 27470068
Klukowska M, Goyal CR, Khambe D, Cannon M, Miner M, Gurich N, Circello B, Huggins T, Barker ML, Furnish C, Conde E, Hoke P, Haught C, Xie S, White DJ
Am J Dent 2015 Oct;28(5):273-84. PMID: 26714345
Kinane DF, Zhang P, Benakanakere M, Singleton J, Biesbrock A, Nonnenmacher C, He T
J Periodontal Res 2015 Dec;50(6):864-9. Epub 2015 May 9 doi: 10.1111/jre.12280. PMID: 25960104
Raslan SA, Cortelli JR, Costa FO, Aquino DR, Franco GC, Cota LO, Gargioni-Filho A, Cortelli SC
J Periodontol 2015 Apr;86(4):516-26. Epub 2014 Dec 11 doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.140197. PMID: 25494658
Syndergaard B, Al-Sabbagh M, Kryscio RJ, Xi J, Ding X, Ebersole JL, Miller CS
J Periodontol 2014 Aug;85(8):e295-303. Epub 2014 Feb 6 doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.130696. PMID: 24502627Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Kurtulus Waschulewski I, Gökbuget AY, Christiansen NM, Ziegler M, Schuster V, Wahl G, Götz W
Arch Oral Biol 2016 Dec;72:75-86. Epub 2016 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.07.013. PMID: 27552374
Alqaderi H, Tavares M, Hartman M, Goodson JM
J Dent Res 2016 Nov;95(12):1387-1393. Epub 2016 Jul 29 doi: 10.1177/0022034516661509. PMID: 27470068
Klukowska M, Goyal CR, Khambe D, Cannon M, Miner M, Gurich N, Circello B, Huggins T, Barker ML, Furnish C, Conde E, Hoke P, Haught C, Xie S, White DJ
Am J Dent 2015 Oct;28(5):273-84. PMID: 26714345
Gümüş P, Özçaka Ö, Ceyhan-Öztürk B, Akcali A, Lappin DF, Buduneli N
J Periodontol 2015 Mar;86(3):387-97. Epub 2014 Dec 11 doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.140444. PMID: 25494659
Raslan SA, Cortelli JR, Costa FO, Aquino DR, Franco GC, Cota LO, Gargioni-Filho A, Cortelli SC
J Periodontol 2015 Apr;86(4):516-26. Epub 2014 Dec 11 doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.140197. PMID: 25494658

Recent systematic reviews

Van der Weijden FA, Van der Sluijs E, Ciancio SG, Slot DE
Dent Clin North Am 2015 Oct;59(4):799-829. doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2015.06.002. PMID: 26427569
Chapple IL, Van der Weijden F, Doerfer C, Herrera D, Shapira L, Polak D, Madianos P, Louropoulou A, Machtei E, Donos N, Greenwell H, Van Winkelhoff AJ, Eren Kuru B, Arweiler N, Teughels W, Aimetti M, Molina A, Montero E, Graziani F
J Clin Periodontol 2015 Apr;42 Suppl 16:S71-6. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12366. PMID: 25639826
Van der Weijden FA, Slot DE
J Clin Periodontol 2015 Apr;42 Suppl 16:S77-91. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12359. PMID: 25597787
Sälzer S, Slot DE, Van der Weijden FA, Dörfer CE
J Clin Periodontol 2015 Apr;42 Suppl 16:S92-105. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12363. PMID: 25581718
Polak D, Martin C, Sanz-Sánchez I, Beyth N, Shapira L
J Clin Periodontol 2015 Apr;42 Suppl 16:S139-51. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12340. PMID: 25523879

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