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1.

Insulinoma

A type of tumor of the pancreatic beta cells that secretes excess insulin and can result in hypoglycemia. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
43907
Concept ID:
C0021670
Neoplastic Process
2.

Zinc

An element with atomic symbol Zn, atomic number 30, and atomic weight 65.39. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
22752
Concept ID:
C0043481
Biologically Active Substance; Element, Ion, or Isotope; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Rapidly progressive

MedGen UID:
342586
Concept ID:
C1850776
Finding
4.

Onset

The age group in which disease manifestations appear. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
64519
Concept ID:
C0206132
Quantitative Concept
5.

Insulin

Insulin (51 aa, ~6 kDa) is encoded by the human INS gene. This protein is involved in the direct regulation of glucose metabolism. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
5827
Concept ID:
C0021641
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Maternal diabetes

Maternal diabetes can either be a gestational, mostly type 2 diabetes, or a type 1 diabetes. Essential is the resulting maternal hyperglycemia as a non-specific teratogen, imposing the same risk of congenital malformations to pregnant women with both type 1 and type2 diabetes. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506326
Concept ID:
CN008658
Finding
7.

Maternal

Having to do with the mother, coming from the mother, or related through the mother. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
348949
Concept ID:
C1858460
Finding
8.

Disease regression

Return to a former state; a subsidence of the symptoms of a disease process; in cancer, a decrease in the size of a tumor or in the extent of cancer in the body. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
195771
Concept ID:
C0684320
Pathologic Function
9.

Prediabetes

Prediabetes means you have blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Too much glucose in your blood can damage your body over time. If you have prediabetes, you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Most people with prediabetes don't have any symptoms. Your doctor can use an A1C test or another blood test to find out if your blood glucose levels are higher than normal. If you are 45 years old or older, your doctor may recommend that you be tested for prediabetes, especially if you are overweight. Losing weight - at least 5 to 10 percent of your starting weight - can prevent or delay diabetes or even reverse prediabetes. That's 10 to 20 pounds for someone who weighs 200 pounds. You can lose weight by cutting down on the amount of calories and fat you eat and being physically active at least 30 minutes a day. Being physically active makes your body's insulin work better. Your doctor may also prescribe medicine to help control the amount of glucose in your blood. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
83928
Concept ID:
C0362046
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Diabetes mellitus, gestational

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. When you are pregnant, high blood sugar levels are not good for your baby. About seven out of every 100 pregnant women in the United States get gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that happens for the first time when a woman is pregnant. Most of the time, it goes away after you have your baby. But it does increase your risk for developing type 2 diabetes later on. Your child is also at risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Most women get a test to check for diabetes during their second trimester of pregnancy. Women at higher risk may get a test earlier. If you already have diabetes, the best time to control your blood sugar is before you get pregnant. High blood sugar levels can be harmful to your baby during the first weeks of pregnancy - even before you know you are pregnant. To keep you and your baby healthy, it is important to keep your blood sugar as close to normal as possible before and during pregnancy. Either type of diabetes during pregnancy increases the chances of problems for you and your baby. To help lower the chances talk to your health care team about. -A meal plan for your pregnancy. -A safe exercise plan. -How often to test your blood sugar. -Taking your medicine as prescribed. Your medicine plan may need to change during pregnancy. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
38815
Concept ID:
C0085207
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Insulins

Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
760846
Concept ID:
C3537244
Pharmacologic Substance
12.

Disorder of glucose metabolism

Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
226229
Concept ID:
C1257958
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Family health status

Overall health and social competence of family unit [from NOC]

MedGen UID:
109024
Concept ID:
C0600220
Finding
14.

Diabetes, Autoimmune

MedGen UID:
104710
Concept ID:
C0205734
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases

A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
45164
Concept ID:
C0028715
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Metabolic disease

Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body disrupt this process. When this happens, you might have too much of some substances or too little of other ones that you need to stay healthy. There are different groups of disorders. Some affect the breakdown of amino acids, carbohydrates, or lipids. Another group, mitochondrial diseases, affects the parts of the cells that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function normally. Diabetes is an example. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
44376
Concept ID:
C0025517
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Diabetes mellitus type 1

The type of diabetes mellitus called IDDM is a disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of IDDM have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classical phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
41522
Concept ID:
C0011854
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Pancreatic Hormones

Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
14585
Concept ID:
C0030292
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Novolin

MedGen UID:
10388
Concept ID:
C0028467
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
20.

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
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