Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Links from PubMed

Cardiac arrest

MedGen UID:
5456
Concept ID:
C0018790
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonyms: Arrest, Cardiac; Arrest, Heart; Asystole; Asystoles; Cardiac Arrest; Heart Arrest
SNOMED CT: Asystole (397829000); Cardiac standstill (397829000); Cardiac arrest (410429000)
 
HPO: HP:0001695

Definition

The heart has an internal electrical system that controls the rhythm of the heartbeat. Problems can cause abnormal heart rhythms, called arrhythmias. There are many types of arrhythmia. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or it can stop beating. Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) occurs when the heart develops an arrhythmia that causes it to stop beating. This is different than a heart attack, where the heart usually continues to beat but blood flow to the heart is blocked. . There are many possible causes of SCA. They include coronary heart disease, physical stress, and some inherited disorders. Sometimes there is no known cause for the SCA. Without medical attention, the person will die within a few minutes. People are less likely to die if they have early defibrillation. Defibrillation sends an electric shock to restore the heart rhythm to normal. You should give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to a person having SCA until defibrillation can be done. If you have had an SCA, an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) reduces the chance of dying from a second SCA. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

Conditions with this feature

Prune belly syndrome
MedGen UID:
18718
Concept ID:
C0033770
Congenital Abnormality
In its rare complete form, 'prune belly' syndrome comprises megacystis (massively enlarged bladder) with disorganized detrusor muscle, cryptorchidism, and thin abdominal musculature with overlying lax skin (summary by Weber et al., 2011).
Brugada syndrome
MedGen UID:
222975
Concept ID:
C1142166
Disease or Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities (ST-segment abnormalities in leads V1-V3 on ECG and a high risk for ventricular arrhythmias) that can result in sudden death. Brugada syndrome presents primarily during adulthood although age at diagnosis may range from infancy to late adulthood. The mean age of sudden death is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentations may also include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; death of a child during the first year of life without an identifiable cause) and the sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), a typical presentation in individuals from Southeast Asia. Other conduction defects can include first-degree AV block, intraventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block, and sick sinus syndrome.
Short QT syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
355891
Concept ID:
C1865020
Disease or Syndrome
Short QT syndrome is a cardiac channelopathy associated with a predisposition to atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Patients have a structurally normal heart, but electrocardiography (ECG) exhibits abbreviated QTc (Bazett's corrected QT) intervals of less than 360 ms (summary by Moreno et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Short QT Syndrome Short QT syndrome-2 (SQT2; 609621) is caused by mutation in the KCNQ1 gene (607542). SQT3 (609622) is caused by mutation in the KCNJ2 gene (600681).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1AA
MedGen UID:
393713
Concept ID:
C2677338
Disease or Syndrome
Nonsyndromic isolated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular enlargement and systolic dysfunction, a reduction in the myocardial force of contraction. DCM usually presents with any one of the following: Heart failure with symptoms of congestion (edema, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea) and/or reduced cardiac output (fatigue, dyspnea on exertion). Arrhythmias and/or conduction system disease. Thromboembolic disease (from left ventricular mural thrombus) including stroke.
Cardiac conduction defect, nonspecific
MedGen UID:
412576
Concept ID:
C2748542
Disease or Syndrome
Brugada syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
413473
Concept ID:
C2751089
Disease or Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities (ST-segment abnormalities in leads V1-V3 on ECG and a high risk for ventricular arrhythmias) that can result in sudden death. Brugada syndrome presents primarily during adulthood although age at diagnosis may range from infancy to late adulthood. The mean age of sudden death is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentations may also include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; death of a child during the first year of life without an identifiable cause) and the sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), a typical presentation in individuals from Southeast Asia. Other conduction defects can include first-degree AV block, intraventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block, and sick sinus syndrome.
Long QT syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
462083
Concept ID:
C3150733
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the ECG and the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Syncope typically occurs during exercise and high emotions, less frequently at rest or during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal spells. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the pre-teen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7), hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8) and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Ventricular tachycardia, catecholaminergic polymorphic, 4
MedGen UID:
766961
Concept ID:
C3554047
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean age of onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and twelve years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
LONG QT SYNDROME 14
MedGen UID:
864108
Concept ID:
C4015671
Disease or Syndrome
LONG QT SYNDROME 15
MedGen UID:
864132
Concept ID:
C4015695
Disease or Syndrome
LINEAR SKIN DEFECTS WITH MULTIPLE CONGENITAL ANOMALIES 3
MedGen UID:
906997
Concept ID:
C4225421
Disease or Syndrome

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Requena-Morales R, Palazón-Bru A, Rizo-Baeza MM, Adsuar-Quesada JM, Gil-Guillén VF, Cortés-Castell E
PLoS One 2017;12(4):e0175818. Epub 2017 Apr 13 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175818. PMID: 28407020
Kirkegaard H, Pedersen AR, Pettilä V, Hjort J, Rasmussen BS, de Haas I, Nielsen JF, Ilkjær S, Kaltoft A, Jeppesen AN, Grejs AM, Duez CH, Larsen AI, Toome V, Arus U, Taccone FS, Storm C, Laitio T, Skrifvars MB, Søreide E
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016 Nov 28;24(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0334-0. PMID: 27894327Free PMC Article
Oh H, Lee K, Seo W
J Adv Nurs 2016 May;72(5):1122-33. Epub 2016 Jan 15 doi: 10.1111/jan.12897. PMID: 26768904
Moncur L, Ainsborough N, Ghose R, Kendal SP, Salvatori M, Wright J
Emerg Med J 2016 Feb;33(2):105-8. Epub 2015 Jun 25 doi: 10.1136/emermed-2015-204643. PMID: 26113486
Del Castillo J, López-Herce J, Matamoros M, Cañadas S, Rodríguez-Calvo A, Cecchetti C, Rodriguez-Núñez A, Álvarez AC; Iberoamerican Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Study Network RIBEPCI.
Resuscitation 2015 Nov;96:126-34. Epub 2015 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.07.037. PMID: 26296583

Diagnosis

Kirkegaard H, Pedersen AR, Pettilä V, Hjort J, Rasmussen BS, de Haas I, Nielsen JF, Ilkjær S, Kaltoft A, Jeppesen AN, Grejs AM, Duez CH, Larsen AI, Toome V, Arus U, Taccone FS, Storm C, Laitio T, Skrifvars MB, Søreide E
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016 Nov 28;24(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0334-0. PMID: 27894327Free PMC Article
Chan PS, McNally B, Nallamothu BK, Tang F, Hammill BG, Spertus JA, Curtis LH
J Am Heart Assoc 2016 Mar 15;5(3):e002924. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.115.002924. PMID: 27068632Free PMC Article
Nagao K, Nonogi H, Yonemoto N, Gaieski DF, Ito N, Takayama M, Shirai S, Furuya S, Tani S, Kimura T, Saku K; Japanese Circulation Society With Resuscitation Science Study (JCS-ReSS) Group*.
Circulation 2016 Apr 5;133(14):1386-96. Epub 2016 Feb 26 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018788. PMID: 26920493
Herman AR, Cheung C, Gerull B, Simpson CS, Birnie DH, Klein GJ, Champagne J, Healey JS, Gibbs K, Talajic M, Gardner M, Bennett MT, Steinberg C, Janzen M, Gollob MH, Angaran P, Yee R, Leather R, Chakrabarti S, Sanatani S, Chauhan VS, Krahn AD
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2016 Jan;9(1):e003619. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.115.003619. PMID: 26783233
Wang AY, Fang CC, Chen SC, Tsai SH, Kao WF
J Formos Med Assoc 2016 Feb;115(2):76-82. Epub 2015 Dec 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jfma.2015.10.016. PMID: 26723861

Therapy

Kirkegaard H, Pedersen AR, Pettilä V, Hjort J, Rasmussen BS, de Haas I, Nielsen JF, Ilkjær S, Kaltoft A, Jeppesen AN, Grejs AM, Duez CH, Larsen AI, Toome V, Arus U, Taccone FS, Storm C, Laitio T, Skrifvars MB, Søreide E
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016 Nov 28;24(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0334-0. PMID: 27894327Free PMC Article
Chan PS, McNally B, Nallamothu BK, Tang F, Hammill BG, Spertus JA, Curtis LH
J Am Heart Assoc 2016 Mar 15;5(3):e002924. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.115.002924. PMID: 27068632Free PMC Article
Nagao K, Nonogi H, Yonemoto N, Gaieski DF, Ito N, Takayama M, Shirai S, Furuya S, Tani S, Kimura T, Saku K; Japanese Circulation Society With Resuscitation Science Study (JCS-ReSS) Group*.
Circulation 2016 Apr 5;133(14):1386-96. Epub 2016 Feb 26 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018788. PMID: 26920493
Herman AR, Cheung C, Gerull B, Simpson CS, Birnie DH, Klein GJ, Champagne J, Healey JS, Gibbs K, Talajic M, Gardner M, Bennett MT, Steinberg C, Janzen M, Gollob MH, Angaran P, Yee R, Leather R, Chakrabarti S, Sanatani S, Chauhan VS, Krahn AD
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2016 Jan;9(1):e003619. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.115.003619. PMID: 26783233
Seung MK, You JS, Lee HS, Park YS, Chung SP, Park I
Resuscitation 2016 Jan;98:64-72. Epub 2015 Nov 21 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.11.004. PMID: 26610377

Prognosis

Requena-Morales R, Palazón-Bru A, Rizo-Baeza MM, Adsuar-Quesada JM, Gil-Guillén VF, Cortés-Castell E
PLoS One 2017;12(4):e0175818. Epub 2017 Apr 13 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175818. PMID: 28407020
Kirkegaard H, Pedersen AR, Pettilä V, Hjort J, Rasmussen BS, de Haas I, Nielsen JF, Ilkjær S, Kaltoft A, Jeppesen AN, Grejs AM, Duez CH, Larsen AI, Toome V, Arus U, Taccone FS, Storm C, Laitio T, Skrifvars MB, Søreide E
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016 Nov 28;24(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0334-0. PMID: 27894327Free PMC Article
Oh H, Lee K, Seo W
J Adv Nurs 2016 May;72(5):1122-33. Epub 2016 Jan 15 doi: 10.1111/jan.12897. PMID: 26768904
Moncur L, Ainsborough N, Ghose R, Kendal SP, Salvatori M, Wright J
Emerg Med J 2016 Feb;33(2):105-8. Epub 2015 Jun 25 doi: 10.1136/emermed-2015-204643. PMID: 26113486
Del Castillo J, López-Herce J, Matamoros M, Cañadas S, Rodríguez-Calvo A, Cecchetti C, Rodriguez-Núñez A, Álvarez AC; Iberoamerican Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Study Network RIBEPCI.
Resuscitation 2015 Nov;96:126-34. Epub 2015 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.07.037. PMID: 26296583

Clinical prediction guides

Requena-Morales R, Palazón-Bru A, Rizo-Baeza MM, Adsuar-Quesada JM, Gil-Guillén VF, Cortés-Castell E
PLoS One 2017;12(4):e0175818. Epub 2017 Apr 13 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175818. PMID: 28407020
Andersen LW, Granfeldt A, Callaway CW, Bradley SM, Soar J, Nolan JP, Kurth T, Donnino MW; American Heart Association’s Get With The Guidelines–Resuscitation Investigators.
JAMA 2017 Feb 7;317(5):494-506. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.20165. PMID: 28118660
Kirkegaard H, Pedersen AR, Pettilä V, Hjort J, Rasmussen BS, de Haas I, Nielsen JF, Ilkjær S, Kaltoft A, Jeppesen AN, Grejs AM, Duez CH, Larsen AI, Toome V, Arus U, Taccone FS, Storm C, Laitio T, Skrifvars MB, Søreide E
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016 Nov 28;24(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0334-0. PMID: 27894327Free PMC Article
Oh H, Lee K, Seo W
J Adv Nurs 2016 May;72(5):1122-33. Epub 2016 Jan 15 doi: 10.1111/jan.12897. PMID: 26768904
Del Castillo J, López-Herce J, Matamoros M, Cañadas S, Rodríguez-Calvo A, Cecchetti C, Rodriguez-Núñez A, Álvarez AC; Iberoamerican Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Study Network RIBEPCI.
Resuscitation 2015 Nov;96:126-34. Epub 2015 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.07.037. PMID: 26296583

Recent systematic reviews

Donnino MW, Andersen LW, Berg KM, Reynolds JC, Nolan JP, Morley PT, Lang E, Cocchi MN, Xanthos T, Callaway CW, Soar J; ILCOR ALS Task Force.
Resuscitation 2016 Jan;98:97-104. Epub 2015 Oct 9 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.09.396. PMID: 26449873
Ewy GA, Bobrow BJ
J Intensive Care Med 2016 Jan;31(1):24-33. Epub 2014 Jul 30 doi: 10.1177/0885066614544450. PMID: 25077491
Donnino MW, Andersen LW, Berg KM, Reynolds JC, Nolan JP, Morley PT, Lang E, Cocchi MN, Xanthos T, Callaway CW, Soar J; ILCOR ALS Task Force.
Circulation 2015 Dec 22;132(25):2448-56. Epub 2015 Oct 4 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000313. PMID: 26434495
Zhao L, Li C, Liu B, Wang M, Shao R, Fang Y
Resuscitation 2015 Dec;97:7-12. Epub 2015 Sep 25 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.09.377. PMID: 26409219
Smith CM, Colquhoun MC
Resuscitation 2015 Nov;96:296-302. Epub 2015 Sep 16 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.08.021. PMID: 26386373

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Consumer resources

    Medical Encyclopedia

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...
    Support Center