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Items: 11

1.

Muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of more than 30 inherited diseases. They all cause muscle weakness and muscle loss. Some forms of MD appear in infancy or childhood. Others may not appear until middle age or later. The different types can vary in whom they affect, which muscles they affect, and what the symptoms are. All forms of MD grow worse as the person's muscles get weaker. Most people with MD eventually lose the ability to walk. There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. Treatments can help with the symptoms and prevent complications. They include physical and speech therapy, orthopedic devices, surgery, and medications. Some people with MD have mild cases that worsen slowly. Others cases are disabling and severe. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
44527
Concept ID:
C0026850
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
2.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

The dystrophinopathies include a spectrum of muscle disease caused by pathogenic variants in DMD, which encodes the protein dystrophin. The mild end of the spectrum includes the phenotypes of asymptomatic increase in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle cramps with myoglobinuria. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that are classified as Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy when skeletal muscle is primarily affected and as DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) when the heart is primarily affected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually presents in early childhood with delayed milestones, including delays in sitting and standing independently. Proximal weakness causes a waddling gait and difficulty climbing. DMD is rapidly progressive, with affected children being wheelchair dependent by age 13 years. Cardiomyopathy occurs in individuals with DMD after age 18 years. Few survive beyond the third decade, with respiratory complications and cardiomyopathy being common causes of death. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by later-onset skeletal muscle weakness; some individuals remain ambulatory into their 20s. Despite the milder skeletal muscle involvement, heart failure from DCM is a common cause of morbidity and the most common cause of death in BMD. Mean age of death is in the mid-40s. DMD-associated DCM is characterized by left ventricular dilation and congestive heart failure. Females heterozygous for a DMD pathogenic variant are at increased risk for DCM. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
3925
Concept ID:
C0013264
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Muscular dystrophy

The term dystrophy means abnormal growth. However, muscular dystrophy is used to describe primary myopathies with a genetic basis and a progressive course characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, defects in muscle proteins, and histological features of muscle fiber degeneration (necrosis) and regeneration. If possible, it is preferred to use other HPO terms to describe the precise phenotypic abnormalities. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
351199
Concept ID:
C1864711
Finding
4.

progressive

MedGen UID:
851455
Concept ID:
CN232553
Finding
5.

progressive disease

MedGen UID:
851262
Concept ID:
CN232330
Finding
6.

Inborn genetic diseases

Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
181981
Concept ID:
C0950123
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Neuromuscular Diseases

Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are the ones you can control, like in your arms and legs. Your nerve cells, also called neurons, send the messages that control these muscles. When the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between your nervous system and muscles breaks down. As a result, your muscles weaken and waste away. The weakness can lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include. -Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. -Multiple sclerosis. -Myasthenia gravis. -Spinal muscular atrophy. Many neuromuscular diseases are genetic, which means they run in families or there is a mutation in your genes. Sometimes, an immune system disorder can cause them. Most of them have no cure. The goal of treatment is to improve symptoms, increase mobility and lengthen life.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
10323
Concept ID:
C0027868
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Myopathy

Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even paralysis. . Causes of muscle disorders include. -Injury or overuse, such as sprains or strains, cramps or tendinitis . -A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy. -Some cancers. -Inflammation, such as myositis. -Diseases of nerves that affect muscles. -Infections. -Certain medicines. Sometimes the cause is not known.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
10135
Concept ID:
C0026848
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Dilated cardiomyopathy 3B

The dystrophinopathies include a spectrum of muscle disease caused by pathogenic variants in DMD, which encodes the protein dystrophin. The mild end of the spectrum includes the phenotypes of asymptomatic increase in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle cramps with myoglobinuria. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that are classified as Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy when skeletal muscle is primarily affected and as DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) when the heart is primarily affected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually presents in early childhood with delayed milestones, including delays in sitting and standing independently. Proximal weakness causes a waddling gait and difficulty climbing. DMD is rapidly progressive, with affected children being wheelchair dependent by age 13 years. Cardiomyopathy occurs in individuals with DMD after age 18 years. Few survive beyond the third decade, with respiratory complications and cardiomyopathy being common causes of death. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by later-onset skeletal muscle weakness; some individuals remain ambulatory into their 20s. Despite the milder skeletal muscle involvement, heart failure from DCM is a common cause of morbidity and the most common cause of death in BMD. Mean age of death is in the mid-40s. DMD-associated DCM is characterized by left ventricular dilation and congestive heart failure. Females heterozygous for a DMD pathogenic variant are at increased risk for DCM. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
777148
Concept ID:
C3668940
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Muscular dystrophy, progressive pectorodorsal

MedGen UID:
326550
Concept ID:
C1839669
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type viia

Distal hereditary motor neuronopathy type VIIa is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the second decade of progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and resulting in walking difficulties and hand grip. There is significant muscle atrophy of the hands and lower limbs. The disorder is associated with vocal cord paresis due to involvement of the tenth cranial nerve (summary by Barwick et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal HMN, see HMN type I (HMN1; 182960). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
322474
Concept ID:
C1834703
Disease or Syndrome
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