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Items: 7

1.

Cisplatin

A drug used to treat many types of cancer. Cisplatin contains the metal platinum. It kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA and stopping them from dividing. Cisplatin is a type of alkylating agent. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
40318
Concept ID:
C0008838
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Estradiol

a steroid sex hormone [from CHV]

MedGen UID:
4551
Concept ID:
C0014912
Hormone; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Malignant Breast Neoplasm

Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include. -Age - the risk rises as you get older. -Genes - two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, greatly increase the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. -Personal factors - beginning periods before age 12 or going through menopause after age 55. Other risks include obesity, using hormone replacement therapy (also called menopausal hormone therapy), taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35, and having dense breasts. Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast, and discharge from a nipple. Breast self-exams and mammography can help find breast cancer early, when it is most treatable. One possible treatment is surgery. It could be a lumpectomy or a mastectomy. Other treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Men can have breast cancer, too, but it is rare. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
651
Concept ID:
C0006142
Neoplastic Process
4.

breast cancer

MedGen UID:
880206
Concept ID:
CN235590
Finding
5.

Neoplasm of the breast

Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. In both women and men, the most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the milk ducts (ductal cancer). In women, cancer can also develop in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer). Most men have little or no lobular tissue, so lobular cancer in men is very rare.In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include a lump or thickening in or near the breast; a change in the size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, or retraction (turning inward); and skin irritation, dimpling, or scaliness. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer.In some cases, cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. If breast cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers.A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
264172
Concept ID:
C1458155
Neoplastic Process
6.

Breast carcinoma

The presence of a carcinoma of the breast. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
7.

cytotoxicity

The adverse effect of some iatrogenic therapies. It is an accepted side effect in radiation therapy where the desired effect is to kill rapidly growing tumor cells. In the killing of tumor cells, other cells that are rapidly growing e.g hair, mucous membranes are also killed. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108579
Concept ID:
C0596402
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
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