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Items: 20

1.

Oxidative Stress

A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products. The damage to biological tissues is caused by superoxide and other free radicals generated by many factors, including exposure to alcohol, medications, trauma, cold, toxins, and radiation or by antimicrobial cellular immunity, metabolic abnormality, or "normal" aging; not synonymous with hypoxia or hyperoxia. Oxidative stress promotes a range of degenerative disorders, including cancer, diabetes, premature aging, Alzheimer's, and many others. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
66929
Concept ID:
C0242606
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
2.

Mitochondrial inheritance

A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on the mitochondrial genome. Because the mitochondrial genome is essentially always maternally inherited, a mitochondrial condition can only be transmitted by females, although the condition can affect both sexes. The proportion of mutant mitochondria can vary (heteroplasmy). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
165802
Concept ID:
C0887941
Genetic Function
3.

Astaxanthin

Carotenoid having a chemical structure similar to beta-carotene with hydroxyl groups at the number 3 and 3' carbon atoms and carbonyl (C=O) functions at the number 4 and 4' carbon atoms. [from NCI_CRCH]

MedGen UID:
26903
Concept ID:
C0052565
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
4.

Stress

The negative mental, emotional, and physical reactions that occur when environmental stressors are perceived as exceeding the individual's adaptive capacities. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
20971
Concept ID:
C0038435
Finding
5.

Oxygen

An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight 16. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
45267
Concept ID:
C0030054
Biologically Active Substance; Element, Ion, or Isotope; Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Antioxidant

A group of organic or inorganic substances capable of preventing the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of free-radical compounds. Antioxidants bind to and neutralize ('scavenge') free radicals, thereby transforming them into non-toxic compounds and blocking their genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. This class of agents includes the vitamins C and E, the carotenoids, and selenium. Organic antioxidants are found in high concentrations in fruits, seeds and vegetables. (NCI04) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
1608
Concept ID:
C0003402
Pharmacologic Substance
7.

Abnormality of mitochondrial metabolism

A functional anomaly of mitochondria. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
867369
Concept ID:
C4021734
Finding
8.

Improved

Condition changed and/or recovered [from CCC]

MedGen UID:
512204
Concept ID:
C0184511
Finding
9.

Oxidation

The process of oxidizing; the addition of oxygen to a compound accompanied by a loss of electrons. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
18242
Concept ID:
C0030011
Molecular Function
10.

Carotinoid

A class of hydrocarbons (carotenes) and their oxygenated derivatives which exhibit chemopreventive properties. Carotenoids are pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. The pigments are fat-soluble, unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons functioning as provitamins and are converted to vitamin A through enzymatic processes in the intestinal wall. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
2890
Concept ID:
C0007271
Biologically Active Substance; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
11.

Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
226255
Concept ID:
C1258062
Molecular Function
12.

Mitochondrial diseases

Mitochondrial diseases are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that arise as a result of dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They can be caused by mutation of genes encoded by either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). While some mitochondrial disorders only affect a single organ (e.g., the eye in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy [LHON]), many involve multiple organ systems and often present with prominent neurologic and myopathic features. Mitochondrial disorders may present at any age. Many individuals with a mutation of mtDNA display a cluster of clinical features that fall into a discrete clinical syndrome, such as the Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), neurogenic weakness with ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), or Leigh syndrome (LS). However, considerable clinical variability exists and many individuals do not fit neatly into one particular category, which is well-illustrated by the overlapping spectrum of disease phenotypes (including mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) resulting from mutation of the nuclear gene POLG, which has emerged as a major cause of mitochondrial disease. Common clinical features of mitochondrial disease – whether involving a mitochondrial or nuclear gene – include ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, proximal myopathy and exercise intolerance, cardiomyopathy, sensorineural deafness, optic atrophy, pigmentary retinopathy, and diabetes mellitus. Common central nervous system findings are fluctuating encephalopathy, seizures, dementia, migraine, stroke-like episodes, ataxia, and spasticity. A high incidence of mid- and late pregnancy loss is a common occurrence that often goes unrecognized. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
155901
Concept ID:
C0751651
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Proton-Motive Force

Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
129182
Concept ID:
C0282517
Molecular Function
14.

Physiological stress

The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
105278
Concept ID:
C0449430
Pathologic Function
15.

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases

A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
45164
Concept ID:
C0028715
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Metabolic disease

A congenital (due to inherited enzyme abnormality) or acquired (due to failure of a metabolic important organ) disorder resulting from an abnormal metabolic process. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
44376
Concept ID:
C0025517
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Protective agent

A class of agents used in prophylactic or curative therapy to attenuate the negative side effects of toxins or drugs. Protective agents belong to various chemical classes, acting through various pharmacological mechanisms. They may neutralize exogenous poisons, coat mucosa for protection against physical or chemical damage, offer antioxidant protection against free radicals or ionizing radiation, or induce endogenous detoxifying enzymes. (NCI04) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
19516
Concept ID:
C0033613
Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Oxidation-reduction

A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
18243
Concept ID:
C0030012
Molecular Function
19.

Electrolyte

Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
3997
Concept ID:
C0013832
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
20.

Ability to control breathing

MedGen UID:
650417
Concept ID:
C0566502
Finding
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