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Items: 1 to 20 of 57

1.

Gefitinib

An anilinoquinazoline with antineoplastic activity. Gefitinib inhibits the catalytic activity of numerous tyrosine kinases including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which may result in inhibition of tyrosine kinase-dependent tumor growth. Specifically, this agent competes with the binding of ATP to the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR, thereby inhibiting receptor autophosphorylation and resulting in inhibition of signal transduction. Gefitinib may also induce cell cycle arrest and inhibit angiogenesis. (NCI04) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
209468
Concept ID:
C1122962
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Paclitaxel

A compound extracted from the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifolia with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein Bcl-2 (B-cell Leukemia 2). (NCI04) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
99784
Concept ID:
C0144576
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Carcinoma of pancreas

Pancreatic cancer shows among the highest mortality rates of any cancer, with a 5-year relative survival rate of less than 5%. By the time of initial diagnosis, metastatic disease is commonly present. Established risk factors include a family history of pancreatic cancer, a medical history of diabetes type 2, and cigarette smoking (summary by Amundadottir et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Pancreatic Cancer Somatic mutations in pancreatic cancer occur in the KRAS (190070), CDKN2A (600160), MADH4 (600993), TP53 (191170), ARMET (601916), STK11 (602216), ACVR1B (601300), and RBBP8 (604124) genes. Susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer include PNCA1 (606856), related to mutation in the PALLD gene on chromosome 4q32 (608092); PNCA2 (613347), related to mutation in the BRCA2 gene on chromosome 13q12 (600185); PNCA3 (613348), related to mutation in the PALB2 gene on chromosome 16p12 (610355); and PNCA4 (614320), related to mutation in the BRCA1 gene on chromosome 17q21 (113705). Occurrence of Pancreatic Cancer in Other Disorders Several familial cancer syndromes increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The best characterized include hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer syndrome (HNPCC; see 120435); hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome due to mutations in BRCA2; Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (175200); the melanoma-pancreatic cancer syndrome (606719), caused by mutations in CDKN2A (600160); von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (193300), ataxia-telangiectasia (208900) (Swift et al., 1976), and juvenile polyposis syndrome (174900). Patients with hereditary pancreatitis (167800) resulting from gain-of-function mutations in the protease serine-1 gene (PRSS1; 276000) have a lifetime pancreatic cancer risk ratio of 57 and a cumulative incidence, to age 70 years, of 40% (Lowenfels et al., 1997). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
65917
Concept ID:
C0235974
Neoplastic Process
4.

Carcinoma

A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2867
Concept ID:
C0007097
Neoplastic Process
5.

Carcinoma

MedGen UID:
910818
Concept ID:
CN241453
Finding
6.

Epidermal growth factor

A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
66867
Concept ID:
C0242275
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
7.

A 7

MedGen UID:
56568
Concept ID:
C0163299
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
8.

Tyrosine

A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
21746
Concept ID:
C0041485
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Biologically Active Substance; Pharmacologic Substance
9.

Vomiting

Forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth by means of a series of involuntary spasmic contractions. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
12124
Concept ID:
C0042963
Sign or Symptom
10.

Nausea

A sensation of unease in the stomach together with an urge to vomit. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
10196
Concept ID:
C0027497
Sign or Symptom
11.

Diarrhea

Abnormally increased frequency of loose or watery bowel movements. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
8360
Concept ID:
C0011991
Sign or Symptom
12.

Anorexia

A lack or loss of appetite for food (as a medical condition). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
315
Concept ID:
C0003123
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
13.

Adenocarcinoma

A common cancer characterized by the presence of malignant glandular cells. Morphologically, adenocarcinomas are classified according to the growth pattern (e.g., papillary, alveolar) or according to the secreting product (e.g., mucinous, serous). Representative examples of adenocarcinoma are ductal and lobular breast carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma), colon adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
122
Concept ID:
C0001418
Neoplastic Process
14.

3/4

MedGen UID:
617755
Concept ID:
C0442757
Finding
15.

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma

The presence of an adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505959
Concept ID:
CN005854
Finding
16.

Neoplasm of the pancreas

A tumor (abnormal growth of tissue) of the pancreas. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
330845
Concept ID:
C1842408
Finding
17.

Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor

Any tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase may inhibit the growth of epidermal-lineage tumor cells, especially those that overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
303178
Concept ID:
C1443775
Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Any substance that inhibits tyrosine kinase, an enzyme involved in the transduction and processing of many extracellular and intracellular signals including cell proliferation. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase may result in inhibition of cell growth and cell proliferation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
266120
Concept ID:
C1268567
Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Grade 1

A morphologic qualifier indicating that a cancerous lesion is well differentiated. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
146365
Concept ID:
C0687695
Finding
20.

Grade 3

A morphologic qualifier indicating that a cancerous lesion is poorly differentiated. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
141532
Concept ID:
C0450094
Finding
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