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Items: 13

1.

Ubiquitination

Ubiquitin is a family of widely distributed proteins found in all eukaryotes that contain a highly conserved sequence of 76 amino acids identical in organisms from humans to insects. It participates in diverse cellular functions by conjugation to other proteins through its carboxy terminus. Ubiquitination is associated with many highly regulated biological events including protein degradation, chromatin remodelling, heat shock, cell cycle progression, differentiation, antigen presentation, retrovirus assembly, apoptosis, signal transduction, transcriptional activation, biological clocks, receptor down regulation, and endocytosis. Protein ubiquitination regulates the half-lives of many proteins by targeting them for degradation. Newly discovered families of ubiquitination and deubiquitination enzymes participate in these processes. Ubiquitination enzymes may provide new therapeutic targets and ways of intervention in many human diseases. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
276919
Concept ID:
C1519751
Molecular Function
2.

Strand breaks

MedGen UID:
549441
Concept ID:
C0301647
Molecular Function
3.

Mutant

An altered form of an individual, organism, population, or genetic character that differs from the corresponding wild type due to one or more alterations (mutations). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
109303
Concept ID:
C0596988
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
4.

Recruitment

MedGen UID:
78772
Concept ID:
C0271510
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Inhibition

MedGen UID:
5809
Concept ID:
C0021469
Molecular Function
6.

DNA Breaks

Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
354581
Concept ID:
C1721104
Molecular Function
7.

Biosynthesis, Peptide

The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
272130
Concept ID:
C1327133
Molecular Function
8.

DNA Double Strand Break

A DNA Double Strand Break involves a disruption of the covalent linkages among the phosphodeoxyribose moieties within the sugar-phosphate backbone in both strands of a DNA molecule. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
267994
Concept ID:
C1511667
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
9.

Protein Modification, Translational

Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
260537
Concept ID:
C1449566
Molecular Function
10.

Genetic translation

Protein synthesis is the group of processes that are involved in generation of mature protein molecules. Although protein synthesis may involve translation alone in many cases, in others, it involves also protein folding, integration of prosthetic groups, glycosylation, methylation, phosphorylation, lipidation and any other process that may be involved in maturation of the polypeptide to the biologically active form. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108933
Concept ID:
C0597295
Molecular Function
11.

Post-Translational Modification

The enzymatic processing of a polypeptide chain after translation from messenger RNA and after peptide bond formation has occurred. Examples include glycosylation, acylation, limited proteolysis, phosphorylation, isoprenylation.(On-line Medical Dictionary) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
46159
Concept ID:
C0033666
Molecular Function
12.

Protein binding

The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
18704
Concept ID:
C0033618
Molecular Function
13.

DNA damage

Drug-, radiation-induced, or spontaneous injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal double-helical conformation. These changes include structural distortions that interfere with replication and transcription, as well as point mutations that disrupt base pairs and exert damaging effects on future generations through changes in DNA sequence. If the damage is minor, it can often be repaired (DNA repair); extensive damage can induce apoptosis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
3880
Concept ID:
C0012860
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
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