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Items: 20

1.

BEZ235

An orally bioavailable imidazoquinoline targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 inhibits PI3K kinase and mTOR kinase in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR kinase signaling pathway, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K/mTOR-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
378635
Concept ID:
C2347425
Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Lapatinib

A synthetic, orally-active quinazoline with potential antineoplastic properties. Lapatinib reversibly blocks phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB2, and the Erk-1 and-2 and AKT kinases; it also inhibits cyclin D protein levels in human tumor cell lines and xenografts. EGFR and ErbB2 have been implicated in the growth of various tumor types. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
266865
Concept ID:
C1506770
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Trastuzumab

A humanized monoclonal antibody against the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR (HER2). As an ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT, it is used to treat BREAST CANCER where HER2 is overexpressed. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
152577
Concept ID:
C0728747
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Immunologic Factor; Pharmacologic Substance
4.

Tyrosine

A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
21746
Concept ID:
C0041485
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Biologically Active Substance; Pharmacologic Substance
5.

Malignant Breast Neoplasm

Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include. -Age - the risk rises as you get older. -Genes - two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, greatly increase the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. -Personal factors - beginning periods before age 12 or going through menopause after age 55. Other risks include obesity, using hormone replacement therapy (also called menopausal hormone therapy), taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35, and having dense breasts. Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast, and discharge from a nipple. Breast self-exams and mammography can help find breast cancer early, when it is most treatable. One possible treatment is surgery. It could be a lumpectomy or a mastectomy. Other treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Men can have breast cancer, too, but it is rare. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
651
Concept ID:
C0006142
Neoplastic Process
6.

breast cancer

MedGen UID:
880206
Concept ID:
CN235590
Finding
7.

Protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor

A drug that interferes with cell communication and growth and may prevent tumor growth. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used to treat cancer. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
266120
Concept ID:
C1268567
Pharmacologic Substance
8.

Neoplasm of the breast

Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
264172
Concept ID:
C1458155
Neoplastic Process
9.

Positive

A presence finding of the specified component / analyte, organism or clinical sign based on the established threshold of the performed test or procedure.  [from HL7]

MedGen UID:
254858
Concept ID:
C1446409
Finding
10.

Breast carcinoma

The presence of a carcinoma of the breast. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
11.

Protein Kinase Inhibitors

Any substance that inhibits protein kinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group to a protein and is active in many diverse signaling pathways. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
260581
Concept ID:
C1449702
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Pharmacologic Substance
12.

Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
226255
Concept ID:
C1258062
Molecular Function
13.

Herceptin

MedGen UID:
90879
Concept ID:
C0338204
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Immunologic Factor; Pharmacologic Substance
14.

Phosphorylation

A process in which a phosphate group is added to a molecule, such as a sugar or a protein. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
10742
Concept ID:
C0031715
Molecular Function
15.

Enzyme Inhibitors

compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
8652
Concept ID:
C0014432
Pharmacologic Substance
16.

Imidazole

MedGen UID:
7016
Concept ID:
C0020923
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
17.

Imidazoles

Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
5743
Concept ID:
C0020924
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
18.

dactolisib

MedGen UID:
501695
Concept ID:
C3501287
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Activating PI3K Mutation

A mutation in PIK3CD, the gene encoding the p110delta catalytic subunit of PI3K, that results in induction of PI3K signaling. Mutations of this type are associated with immunodeficiency 14 (PASLI: activated PI3k-delta syndrome, p110-delta-activating mutation causing senescent t cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
927535
Concept ID:
C4290003
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
20.

Tumor-Suppressor Pathway Deregulation

MedGen UID:
274314
Concept ID:
C1519669
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
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